Zur Navigation springen |Zum Inhalt springen
 
 

Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege, Heft 4, 2007

ÖZKD 2007, Heft 3/4

Österreichische Zeitschrift
für Kunst- und Denkmal-
pflege 2007, Heft 4

Buch Kurzinfo

Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege, Heft 4, 2007

Erscheinungsjahr: 2007

Seiten: 235 Seiten

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 7,50

Auszug (Vorwort)

Zu bestellen bei
verlag.berger.at


Aus dem Inhalt:

Rainald Franz
„SCAMOZZIANISMUS“ NÖRDLICH DER ALPEN? SPUREN DES WIRKENS VON ARCHITEKTURTHEORIE UND -PRAXIS VINCENZO SCAMOZZIS (1548–1616) IN SALZBURG UND WIEN: DER DOMBAU ZU SALZBURG UND DAS PALAIS DIETRICHSTEIN-LOBKOWITZ IN WIEN

Franz Matsche
JOHANN BERNHARD FISCHER VON ERLACH, PLINIUS  d. J. UND JEAN-FRANÇOIS FÉLIBIEN. ZUR INVENTION VON FISCHERS  „LUSTGEBÄUDEN“

Christine Oppitz/Huberta Weigl
... WO DURCH EURE HOCHWURDTEN UND GNADTEN SICH EINEN EWIGEN NAMEN MACHTEN ...
EIN BRIEF JOHANN BERNHARD FISCHERS VON ERLACH AN DEN HERZOGENBURGER PROPST WILHELM SCHMERLING

Hellmut Lorenz/Wilhelm Georg Rizzi
DAS BAROCKE GARTENPALAIS STROZZI IN WIEN

Manfred Koller
BAROCKISIERTE GOTIK UND GOTISIERENDER BAROCK. BEFUND UND RESTAURIERUNG DER DEUTSCHORDENSKIRCHE IN WIEN

Katrin Harter
DIE BAROCKE SKULPTURENAUSSTATTUNG DES GARTENS VON SCHLOSS HOF

Maria Pötzl-Malikova
ÜERLEGUNGEN ÜBER DAS URSPRÜNGLICHE PROGRAMM DER STATUEN IM PARTERRE DES SCHÖNBRUNNER GARTENS

Pietro Delpero
GIUSEPPE VOLPINI, „HOFBILDHAUER“ DES KURFÜRSTEN VON BAYERN

Luigi A. Ronzoni
DAS MONUMENTALKRUZIFIX VON RAPPOLTENKIRCHEN
EIN NEUENTDECKTES WERK DES JAKOB GABRIEL MOLLINAROLO

Patrick Schicht/Werner Telesko
DIE EHEMALIGE JESUITENKIRCHE AM HOF IN WIEN. ZU DEN NEU ENTDECKTEN STUCK- UND MALEREIRESTEN DER FRÜHBAROCKEN AUSSTATTUNG

Werner Telesko
DIE WIENER SERVITENKIRCHE ALS  „AULA MARIANA“. ZU EINEM FRÜHEN KONZEPT GEGENREFORMATORISCHER THEATRALIK

Herbert Karner
ANDREA POZZO, JOHANN MICHAEL ROTTMAYR UND DIE KUTSCHE
DES FÜRSTEN VON LIECHTENSTEIN

Michaela Šeferisová Loudová
„MERKWÜRDIGE THATEN [...] BESONDERS ABER DIE ERBAUUNG DER BIBLIOTHEC“. DIE DECKENGEMÄLDE DER BIBLIOTHEKSSÄLE DES SCHLOSSES IN KROMERIZ/KREMSIER UND IHR BEZUG ZU DEN FRESKEN DER WIENER HOFBIBLIOTHEK

Johann Kronbichler
PATER NORBERT BAUMGARTNER (1710–1773). SEINE ARBEITEN IM WIENER KAPUZINERKLOSTER


ENGLISH ABSTRACTS

Rainald Franz
„Scamozzianism“ in the North? Traces of influence on theory of architecture and practical architecture in Salzburg and  Vienna by Vincenzo Scamozzi (1548–1616): the Salzburg Cathedral and the Dietrichstein-Lobkowitz Palais in Vienna

Vincenzo Scamozzis influence on Northern European Architecture and theory of Architecture of the early 17th century has been underrated until some years ago, when his work was shown in a comprehensive exhibition in Vicenza in 2003. From recent scientific work on the profusion of his important treatise „L´Idea della architettura universale“ (Venice 1615) in aristocratic libraries and architect’s workshops on the Northern side of the Alps, it becomes clear that Scamozzi shaped very much the new „taste“ in architecture with his idea of „Architettura come scienza“ of architecture being a science. The entry focuses on his most important project north of the Alps, his designs for the new Salzburg Cathedral for Archbishop Wolf-Dietrich, started in 1607, and on the influence of Scamozzis architectural language on the planning and architects competition for the Dietrichstein Lobkowitz Palais in Vienna (started in 1687). It becomes clear that Scamozzis “summa architetturae”, his work and his treatise „Idea…“ with the sumptuous woodblock print illustrations and the German translation of 1684 had a strong impact on the 17th century architecture in the Hapsburg Empire as well as on the archbishopric of Salzburg. By the end of the 17th century, new ideas were infused by the generation of Italian trained architects like Fischer, Hildebrandt, who brought back the High Baroque architectural language to the Austrian countries, putting an end to the long-lasting influence of Scamozzis formal ideas, which in many cases still remain to be traced back.


Franz Matsche
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Pliny the Younger,
and Jean-François Félibien:
The Invention of Fischer’s maisons de plaisance


In his Codex Montenuovo, Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach compiled a number of plans, including the copy of a floor plan for a simple garden house. These plans for the so-called „Petite Maison“, a reconstruction of part of the estate of Pliny the Younger, had been published by Jean-François Félibien in the Comes rusticus for the first time in 1692. Later on, they served Fischer as a basis for his own villa designs with a cubic layout. One of the earliest examples of a villa conceived according to these plans is the Thunhof – the forerunner to the Hetzendorf Palace near Schönbrunn – begun in 1694. The analysis of these and other plans, such as those for Trautson Palace in Vienna, hints at the fact that Fischer must have studied French baroque architecture with its concept of „distribution” very early on; a refutation of Sedlymayr’s claim that, in the Fischer’s case, external construction has absolute primacy.


Christine Oppitz / Huberta Weigl
A letter from Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach to Provost Wilhelm Schmerling

The recent discovery of a certain letter in the archives of the Augustinian monastery of Herzogenburg came as quite a surprise: it turns out to have been written by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach personally. In this letter, sent from Vienna on 16th May 1720, Fischer proposes an unusual sketch to his patron, Provost Wilhelm Schmerling, without mentioning what object is depicted. Yet in view of the monastery’s architectural history, it is quite clear that the sketch is a draft for the church tower. This letter gives us the opportunity to take another look at what research has had to say about Fischer’s tower designs. This article is specifically concerned with the two projects drafted by Fischer for the church tower in Herzogenburg in 1720. In this case, the daring idea of adding on to the mediaeval tower and thereby doubling its original height of 33 meters was realised with success. Beyond the question of the tower, the letter gives us unique insight into the cordial relationship between Fischer and his patron. In his Post Scriptum, Fischer mentions a few details about Provost Hieronymus Übelbacher of Dürnstein, with whom Fischer had had contact for some time.


Hellmut Lorenz/Wilhelm Georg Rizzi
A Baroque garden palace in Vienna: the Strozzi Palace

The construction of the Strozzi Palace in Vienna’s eighth district began in 1698, during one of the most important phases of high baroque architecture. Thanks to the work of Karola Bielohlawek (1925), this palace has also been an object of art history research for some years. Nonetheless, recently discovered plans have shed new light on the original state of palace as it appeared before substantial modification work which, until now, was thought to have been carried out some time shortly after 1716. Together with other surviving sources and more recent findings, these documents help us to gain a greater appreciation of this small baroque palace whose frescoes, in particular, serve as an interesting example of how sophisticated baroque architecture in Vienna could be around 1700. It has also been recently established that the complex underwent five phases of expansion in the 18th and early 19th century which successively turned it into the palace we know today. Certain distinctive details help particularly in solving the riddle of who the mind behind the original plans was. The window framings in the so-called piano nobile, for example, bear a striking resemblance to those of the Corbelli-Schöller Palace in Vienna and of the House „zur goldenen Sonne“ in Wroc³aw, both attributed to Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt.


Manfred Koller
Gothic transformed to Baroque and Baroque transformed to gothic: Examination and Restauration of the church of the Teutonic Order in Vienna

Since the early 20th century the study of art history has been concerned with the documents and original plans conserved in the archive of the Teutonic Order in Vienna. Special emphasis has been put on interior and exterior renovations since 1650. The first after 1650 vanished under the renovation of 1720–24. For this second renovation two different concepts are preserved in a series of plans now attributed to the architect and technician Anton Ospel: Whereas the first concept is clearly baroque in style, the second mixes the given gothic architectural structure with gothic-like additions. Although the latter draft plans seem to correspond to today’s interior, this is due a restyling from 1864–68, where naked stone elements and square painted walls together with a new main altar where introduced.
Still unpublished examinations made during conservation work carried out around 1975 show a much more tricky situation regarding the renovations from 1720 and 1864 than the documents would suggest. After 1720 all gothic ribs and pillars were covered with highly polished yellowbrown stucco marble. In the squares of the vault were stucco-ornaments in the style of Berain with bole gilding and additional painting. The whole background of the apse showed an illusionist wallpainting with gothic-like windows and ornaments made by the Viennese painter Anton von Prenner (he was also the contractor of the new main altar). Illustrations of the apse made before 1864 confirmed the results of stratigraphic examinations and partial restorations of the baroque-gothic transformations after 1720. Further on the conservation of the painting by Tobias Pock from 1668 for the main altar and the historical colour scheme of the facades during 17th and 18th century, mainly using bright „stone-colour“ hues, will be discussed.
Finally focus is put on the live and career of Anton von Prenner (1683–1761), who, working as engraver and painter, also designed interiors. Between 1721 and 1723 he made similar decorations for Moravian castles at Budisov and Mikulov, which still exist today.


Katrin Harter
The baroque sculptures in Hof Palace gardens

Hof Palace in Lower Austria is a baroque complex of particular cultural and historic importance. Initially the hunting lodge of Prince Eugene of Savoy and later of the Empress Maria Theresa, it includes – among other things – a sumptuous baroque garden divided into seven terraces. This article is principally concerned with baroques sculptures which once adorned these gardens and their symbolism. Johann Christoph Mader, the successor to Prince Eugene’s sculptor Johann Stanetti, and his work are briefly introduced. Style analysis demonstrates that Mader was the one responsible for completing the sculptures at Hof Palace. A comparison with the sculptures in the Belvedere gardens in Vienna will reveal numerous similarities. This is further supported by stylistic evidence from Mader’s workshop, e.g. the atlases from the sala terrena at the upper Belvedere.


Maria Pötzl-Malikowa
The park grounds of Schönbrunn

From 1773–1775, the court sculptor Friedrich Wilhelm Beyer was commissioned to create a series of monumental marble statues based on motifs from Antiquity and intended to adorn both the garden-side façade of Schönbrunn Palace and the slope of the gently rising hill at the opposite end of the garden. Nowadays, these statues flank the sides of the garden without any apparent scheme. As their original arrangement is unknown, little can be said about the „programme“ behind the ensemble. In this article, the author attempts to reconstruct this arrangement and thereby the overall „message“ of the original sculpture group, based largely on a surviving plan drawn up by the architect Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg in 1772. According to the author, the intention was to convey the prosperity and cultural sophistication of Maria Theresa’s dominions and to point out the virtues of their inhabitants. Yet this customary glorification of the ruler’s wise governance seems to have been carried out with a less conventional selection of figures and in a less traditional arrangement, under the influence of the late Enlightenment as it would seem. The statues which were originally located on the slope appear to have constituted an iconological ensemble with the Gloriette at the top of the hill. The Gloriette, still standing to this day, was conceived as a monument to just war, constructed after Friedrich II had usurped Silesia.


Pietro Delpero
Giuseppe Volpini (1679–1729), „court sculptor“ to the Elector of Bavaria

This article on the Volpini family gives detailed insight into the mobility of wandering artists in the German-speaking world of the Baroque period and examines the role of Italian influence on the development of baroque art in central Europe. It is part of a series of works which have been published over the past several years und which have described artists such as Giovanni Battista, Diego and Carlo Carlone, Giovanni Giuliani, Paul and Peter Strudel, Giovanni Battista Barberini, and Carpoforo Tencalla.
Volpini’s own documents and works help to reconstruct his path through Europe as well as his professional growth as a sculptor. His career begins in Lombardy and continues through Austria and Franconia before ending prestigiously in Munich.
Volpini’s Franconian and Bavarian works show unmistakeable traces of influence from Paul Strudel and the Viennese Academy as well as from Lombard sculptors living in Austria, such as Giovanni Battista Carlone and Diego Francesco Carlone, and bear clear witness to his former activity in Austria.
The Volpinis are a fascinating model of Lombard workshop organisation, in which family members were typically employed to coordinate local workers and commissions were approached with utmost flexibility. Volpini worked for both protestant margraves and Catholic electors. He experimented with a wide range of materials and offered a broad spectrum of artistic achievements, for no matter what representative function his works were intended.


Luigi A. Ronzoni
The crucifix of Rappoltenkirchen – the rediscovery of a work by Jakob Gabriel Mollinarolo

Count Johann Ferdinand Kuefstein acquired the dominion of Rappoltenkirchen in Lower Austria in 1740. Shortly thereafter, he ordered the village church to be adapted and renovated. Both the church’s altars and its fresco work, signed by Antonio de Agostini, date back to the year 1749. The high altar is dominated by a monumental bronze crucifix, surrounded by small angles and clouds carved by a local craftsman. The corpus, an example of high-quality metalwork, is not part of the original ensemble and was probably not included until 1768. It can be attributed with certainty to the Viennese sculptor Jakob Gabriel Mollinarolo (1717–1780). Among his works, he produced a large number of smaller crucifixes with stylistic characteristics corresponding to those of the monumental work. According to a local oral tradition, the corpus originally came from St. Stephan’s Cathedral in Vienna. It was possibly commissioned by the Duchess Maria Theresa von Liechtenstein-Savoyen for the chapel where her husband, son and the famous hero Prince Eugene of Savoy were interred. As the crucifix was not installed there, it is possible that the Duchess endowed the work to the neighbouring dominion of Count Kuefstein, who integrated it in the main-altar of his church in Rappoltenkirchen.


Werner Telesko/Patrick Schicht
The former Jesuit church on the square Am Hof in Vienna: traces of stucco and paintings

Recent restoration work in the church Am Hof have revealed the existence of large-scale early baroque paintings as well as traces of stucco framing behind murals of a later period. Luckily, the chronology of the church’s construction and existing engravings make it possible to date these works as belonging to the second quarter of the 17th century. Their hagiographic scheme corresponds to typical Jesuit cycles based conceptually on the principal of „work-ethics“. Furthermore, extensive inspection of the nave has yielded valuable information on early baroque wall segmentation, where – as in the side chapels – the surfaces were systematically ornamented with stucco, paintings, and gilded elements.


Werner Telesko
The interior of the Servitenkirche in Vienna

Not much scholarly attention has been paid to the concept behind the Servitenkirche until more recent times. Yet its elaborate furnishings and decoration are one of the earliest examples of counterreformation art employed by the religious orders in Vienna. The masterful stucco work on the ceiling, conceived by Giovanni Battista Barberini, was completed in 1669 and the church was finally dedicated on September 21, 1670. While the sources from the Servite archives show that the artistic concept of the church is largely based on the Christological and Marian spirituality of the Servite order, they also indicate the influence of Jesuit theology. The oval-shaped cupola is the culmination of these different religious disciplines, uniting the symbolism of salvation history (revelation of the New Testament through the Old Testament) with Marian allegory. The stucco draperies in the cupola visualise the process of revelation while the textile leaf work brings Christological events to mind.


Herbert Karner
Andrea Pozzo, Johann Michael Rottmayr and the carriage of Prince Liechtenstein

The frescoes of the Liechtenstein Palace – the work of the Jesuit Andrea Pozzo and the Salzburg-born artist Johann Michael Rottmayr – were most recently the subject of analysis and discussion in 1989 (Hellmut Lorenz) and 1993 (Friedrich Polleroß). There are, however, three reasons why this topic has been taken up again in this article. Firstly, because a coherent approach to understanding the works of both artists in their proper context in still missing. Secondly, because the restoration of Rottmayr’s two staircase frescoes from 2002 to 2006 and, thirdly, the discovery of an interesting and revealing drawing by Pozzo compel us to renew the discussion. The key to answering any new questions that might result from this situation is in particular the quadratura to be found in Liechtenstein Palace.


Michaela Šeferisová Loudová
The library frescoes from Kremsier Palace and their connection with the Hofbibliothek in Vienna

The painter Daniel Gran created one of his greatest works from 1726–1730, the frescoes of the magnificent Hofbibliothek in Vienna. In 1737, Salomon Kleiner and Jeremias Jacob Sedelmayr published an album introducing the interior of the court library, including a printed reproduction of Gran’s „apotheosis of Karl VI“. These pages would later become a source of inspiration to other painters and patrons. One of numerous examples of the use of these motifs is the library of the Kremsier Palace, today in the Czech Republic. In 1759, Leopold Friedrich von Egkh, Archbishop of Olmütz, commissioned the artist Josef Stern to paint frescoes in the library’s two large rooms. In the larger room, two archbishops who had been important to the history of the library, Karl von Liechtenstein-Castelcorn and Leopold Friedrich von Egkh, are glorified in an apotheosis. The smaller room boast a fresco depicting the birth of Minerva. With the adoption of Gran’s famous frescoes in the second half of the 18th century another question arises: what connection is there between this adoption and Winckelmann’s work „Gedanken über die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke in der Malerei and Bildhauerkunst“ which was published in 1755?


Johann Kronbichler
Pater Norbert Baumgartner (1710–1773): His works in Vienna’s Kapuzinerkloster

During his study of painting in Rome, the Viennese-born Norbert Baumgartner entered the Capuchin order and received the religious name of Norbertus. After several years of pastoral and artistic activity in Italy, he finally returned to Vienna where he received numerous commissions for monastery churches throughout the Austrian/Hungarian Capuchin province. This article is mainly dedicated to his works done for the Capuchin church in Vienna. In this church, the paintings ornamenting the high altar and side altars are from his brush, as well as the paintings to be found in the oratory. Several sketches and drafts for altarpieces can be found not only in Vienna, but also in many locations in Hungary. In recognition of his merits, Baumgartner was accepted as a real member of the Imperial Kupferstecherakademie one year before his death in 1773. Baumgartner’s painting was largely influenced by the style of artists such as Martino Altomonte and Michael Angelo Unterberger from the Viennese academy.