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Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst- und Denkmalpflege Heft 4, 2008

ÖZKD 2008, Heft 4

Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst- und Denkmal-
pflege, Heft 4, 2008

Buch Kurzinfo

Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst- und Denkmalpflege Heft 4, 2008

Erscheinungsjahr: 2009

Seiten: ca. 210 Seiten

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 7,50

Zu bestellen bei  verlag.berger.at


AUS DEM INHALT:

Tibor Rostás
Zwei gotische Pfeilerformen in Mitteleuropa

Gertraud Blaschitz
Wandmalereien im Freskensaal der „Gozzoburg“ Krems.
Josaphat und Ottokar II. Premysl?

Christian Nikolaus Opitz
Die Wandmalereien im Turmzimmer der Kremser Gozzoburg
Ein herrschaftliches Bildprogramm des späten 13. Jahrhunderts   

Helga Schönfellner-Lechner / Günther Buchinger
Der Wappensaal der Domus Gozzonis in Krems

Georg Zeman
Die ehemalige Tympanontafel der Stiftskirche Seckau.
Ein Addendum zur Tafelmalerei des Internationalen Stils in Österreich

Petr Cehovský
Lombardische Vorbilder für das Portal der Wiener Salvatorkapelle
und das Portal des Olmützer Rathauses

Renate Holzschuh-Hofer / Susanne Beseler  
Nobles Grau–Gold. Bauforschung am Schweizertor in der Wiener Hofburg

Walter Kalina

Die Pfarr- und Wallfahrtskirche Mariabrunn 1639–1655

Bernadette Reinhold
„...meinem Herzen so heilig...“ Carolina Augustas neuer Salon in der Wiener Hofburg und der Memorialkult „des guten Kaiser Franz“   

Elisabeth Oberhaidacher-Herzig  
Die Bildfenster der Pfarrkirche zum Hl. Ägydius in Raach am Hochgebirge

Eva-Maria Höhle
Rekonstruktion und Neues Bauen: Positionen der Denkmalpflege

TAGUNGSBERICHTE



ENGLISH ABSTRACTS

Tibor Rostás
TWO COLUMN FORMS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

This article deals with the first central European examples of two types of Gothic columns from Northern France. The oldest is the column surrounded by so-called en délit engaged pillars. The en délit technique offers the possibility of realising the column core and its surrounding pillars using different materials. Examples of this technique can be found on the eastside of the nave in Laon, in the aisles of Notre Dame in Paris, and in Canterbury (cf. ill. 631). This elementary solution from the Early Gothic period was still in use during the first half of the 13th century, later to be supplanted by one of the greatest achievements of classical Gothic architecture, the pilier cantonné. In this form, both the core of the column and its engaged pillars are hewn from one piece of stone. The first example of this type of column dates to the end of the 12th century and can be found in Chartres. It was later refined in Reims in the 1320’s, after which this version became the most widespread.
This article deals with the French influence on certain examples in Austria and Hungary (e.g. Kalocsa, Esztergom, Klosterneuburg, Óbuda, Somogyvar, Heiligenkreuz, Zwettl, Lilienfeld), and comes to the conclusion that these columns of Northern French origin can be considered special components in the 13th century architecture of Central Europe.  


Gertrud Blaschitz
THE MURALS OF THE FRESKENSAAL IN THE GOZZO PALACE IN KREMS: JOSAPHAT AND OTTOKAR II OF BEHEMIA?

The frescoes of the medieval Gozzo Palace in Krems depict in particularly vivacious colours the legend of Barlaam and Josaphat, well known in Europe since antiquity. Together with the so-called ‘Ywain frescoes’ in Schmalkalden, they represent the only surviving example of profane 13th century monumental mural art north of the Alps. The literary scenes realised in these murals depart from the conventional forms of visualisation implemented in the religious art of that period. These high-quality frescoes furthermore distinguish themselves as a significant innovation both in the traditional repertoire of images, as well as in the iconographic skills common to transalpine Europe in the 13th century.
What makes them unique is their early artistic interpretation of a literary work. Their scheme is closely based on literary and iconographic references, while the murals clearly demonstrate the commissioner’s wish of both representative self-portrayal and the visualisation of concrete literary motifs. This intention is rather complex. On the literary level, the goal was to portray a ruler’s probation and the victory of Christianity and the moral formation of mankind in general. On the historic level, political ideal were intertwined with portrayal of current conditions, without wanting to create literal depictions thereof, however. Instead, the mediums of painting and pictorial rhetoric were implemented in order to convey the message that Ottokar II of Bohemia is an example of a Christian ruler after the fashion of Josaphat.


Christian Nikolaus Opitz
THE MURAL PAINTINGS IN THE TOWER ROOM OF THE GOZZOBURG IN KREMS

The mural paintings recently discovered in the so called Gozzoburg (Gozzo's castle) in Krems were most likely executed around 1270 and commissioned by the wealthy judge Gozzo who also served as fiscal officer to the Bohemian king Ottokar II. While the "Wappensaal" displays one of the earliest surviving heraldic friezes in central European art, the "Turmzimmer" (tower room) is decorated with an eschatological cycle. The north wall of the room shows the rulers of the Four Empires according to the Biblical vision of Daniel, the west wall is painted with the Last Judgement. The somewhat enigmatic narrative sequence on the south and east walls may be interpreted as the Life of Antichrist: the final scene of the fresco cycle bears striking resemblances to depictions of the Antichrist's death in French and Anglo-Norman painting of the mid-13th century. Also, a hitherto unnoticed inscription identifies the figure of a saint in the last episode on the east wall as the prophet "ELYAS" who plays an important part in the Antichrist legend.
It seems likely that the choice of the murals' subject can be regarded as a response to the widespread heretical movements that were a major concern to both clerical and civic authorities in late 13th century Austria.


Helga Schönfellner-Lechner / Günther Buchinger
THE HERALDIC HALL OF THE GOZZO PALACE IN KREMS

The heraldic hall of the recently renovated Gozzo Palace dates to 1254 and distinguishes itself both historically and architecturally. Built according to the fashion of Italian municipal palaces, this two-story court building includes a prestigious hall which from 2005 to 2007 was restored to its original condition, including the frieze depicting 41 coats of arms. The west wall, being the focal point of the entire frieze, shows the lands of King Ottokar and his relatives, while the coats of arms on the other three walls demonstrate how Ottokar’s rule was embedded in a greater, European context. Although this iconography might suggest Ottokar himself as its commissioner, the presence of three smaller coats of arms, placed centrally below those of the King, seem to speak another language. These three blazons can be identified as belonging to Ottokar’s ministry officials of seneschal, constable, and burgrave in Krems. Thus the frieze is an expression of reigning hierarchy and of the legitimacy of the royally appointed municipal judge serving under these coats of arms. Gozzo almost continuously held the office of municipal judge in Krems from 1262 to 1266, the period in which the frieze was realised, and is therefore a very likely candidate for its commissioner. The architectural coherency with his residence adjacent to the Palace is yet another argument in favour of this assertion.


Georg Zeman
A FORMER TYMPANUM-PANEL OF THE SECKAU-ABBEY-CHURCH
This article deals with the fragment of a panel painting portraying an enthroned Madonna in the possession of the Benedictine abbey of Seckau. It originates from the tympanum of the abbey church. The Baroque historian Matthias Ferdinand Gauster documented the tympanum with a sketch: it includes the adoration of the Magi as well as the abbey’s founder, Adalram von Waldeck, kneeling before the Ecce homo. At the end of the 19th century, the panel was removed in the course of ecclectic renovation work and did not re-emerge until the 1950’s, when it was found in the monastery’s attic. It is in very poor condition. The Epiphany motif refers to the abbey’s feast day, while Adalram before the Ecce Homo most likely underscores the fact that he founded the abbey in atonement for certain misdeeds. Stylistically it is a work by local craftsmen, realised in the international style. Individual motifs were inspired by Franco-Flemish art. Gauster identifies the date of the panel’s realisation as the year 1423.


Petr Cehovský

LOMBARDIAN INSPIRATION FOR THE PORTALS OF THE SALVATORKAPELLE IN VIENNA AND THE TOWN HALL IN OLOMOUC

Lombardy in the Renaissance and Baroque, and especially the region surrounding Lago di Como, Lago Maggiore and Lago di Lugano, was an area in which many stonemasons, who were later active throughout all of Europe, received their training. The portal of the Salvatorkapelle in Vienna (1515-1519) and the portal of the town hall in Olomouc (ca. 1530) are among the most significant examples of Lombardian architectural sculpture in the early Renaissance style in Central Europe. Art historians consider these portals to be the works of anonymous Lombardian artists, though until now no concrete references have been identified. In this article, the author deals with the related examples for these portals in Lombardy and asserts that the anonymous authors of both portals were mainly influenced by early Renaissance art from the Province of Brescia.
The portal of the Salvatorkapelle in Vienna bears a remarkable resemblance to the portals designed by Gaspare Coirano da Milano, mainly to his portal of the cathedral of Salò (1506-1509), where – similar to the Salvatorkapelle – we also find two busts in the upper part of the portal. Gaspare da Coirano was very likely the mind behind the Viennese portal.
The portal of the town hall in Olomouc was influenced mainly by wood carvings from the Province of Brescia, especially frames of altar pieces or paintings. The nearest parallel seems to be the wooden frame of


Renate Holzschuh-Hofer
HOFBURG AND SCHWEIZERTOR WITH ITS PROPAGANDA MESSAGE DURING THE RENAISSANCE REVIEWED IN THE LIGHT OF NEW KNOWLEDGE ARISING FROM RECENT BUILDING RESEARCH

In 2008, building research took place in Vienna on the Hofburg Schweizertor. This project was undertaken under the auspices of the Commission of Art History of the Austrian Academy of Science. The intrusive wall openings were carefully chosen to coincide with locations where the original architecture was overbuilt at the middle of the 18th Century and consequently protected from later interference. These brought to light original substance of a nature which no one had dared to hope would still exist, thus generating considerable new knowledge. Schweizertor, which was built by the order of King Ferdinand I during 1552-53 as the representative entrance to his central residence, is one of his most significant commissioned pieces. In spite of its importance in terms of art historical and iconological content it has not received deeper analysis. Likewise the whole residence of Hofburg has lacked a holistic approach from the history and art history perspective in contradiction to its European importance. Hofburg, with only short interruptions, became from Ferdinands time onwards, the continuous Central Imperial Residence of the Holy Roman Empire to the end of “Donaumonarchie”. Analysis of the architectural iconology in Renaissance produced two findings, both of which were favourite political goals of Ferdinand and visualised in his Viennese residence architecture: the partition of the Burgundy heritage and succeeding as emperor after his brother Charles V. The goal of getting part of Burgundy was never achieved. However he did succeed in his ambition to succeed Charles as Emperor. From 1552 (Passauer Contract) he was able to not only achieve the guarantee of receiving the title of emperor, but also assurance that the title remained on the Austrian line of the Habsburg family despite resistance from his mighty brother Charles and son Phillip II. Schweizertor coincided with the winning of the power struggle for the Holy Roman Empire even before he was proclaimed emperor in 1558 and therefore may be interpreted as a triumphal monument to this important victory. A further result of the building research is related to the building history. Now it can be proved that the arcades of Schweizerhof were not created simultaneously with Schweizertor. Of special interest are the findings related to the original colour of the portal architecture. Both doors were not covered with paint but left in their natural own stone colour of the blue-green Flysch-sandstone. The results from the research into the colour of the inscription boards were not conclusive and therefore shown in the reconstruction drawing given in the present article in the two possible variations: red or dark grey. The current appearance in dark red – dark grey colour is based on a baroque arrangement (between 1763 and 1828-30). The symbolism of the Order of the Golden Fleece (fire irons, flintstone, flames, the x-shaped cross of holy Andrew) is the signs of Burgundy and simultanously the Order. There are a series of these symbols on the facades of Hofburg and also on Schweizertor, emphasising the appeal for the Burgundy ambition. With the colour composition of the cool grey – gold, which was considerd to be the most noble colour combination by the dukes of Burgundy, the relation of Ferdinand I towards Burgundy was emphasised in a subtle way and with it his claim to a part of the burgundy heritage.


Susanne Beseler
THE SCHWEIZERTOR AND THE METAMORPHOSES OF ITS SURFACE

Schweizertor, the magnificent imperial portal built 1552–53 is a gem of Austrian Renaissance Art as well as representing a milestone in Habsburg history. Due to its important central position within Hofburg it has been restored several times. The present striking colour composition of the natural stone architecture, consisting of red and grey elements combined with the polychromatic coat of arms and several gilded details, has long been identified as characteristic of Renaissance style. The knowledge from the recent „interrogation“ carried out in 2008 allows fresh deliberations about its original composition and new interpretations about changes through time. Additionally it gives an illustration of a piece of European monumental history. Based on the analysis of the nearly undisturbed new findings, the original visual appearance was mostly given through the grey of the Flyschzone sandstone, which was left unpainted. Beyond that, new conclusions were achieved about earlier building works on the portal and the adjacent walls. The metamorphoses of the surface is documenting at least eight phases of colour arrangements with several colour changes including monochrome grey and grey-red compositions. These always have to be considered in conjunction with the gilded elements and the polychrome coat of arms. The research work will not be completed for a long time. The conclusions and interpretations given here, have initially produced exiting answers, revising knowledge about the artistic composition and building history of Schweizertor and Hofburg in Renaissance time. For now this should be seen as only an intermediate result.


Walter Kalina
THE PARISH- AND PILGRIMAGE-CHURCH OF MARIABRUNN 1639–1655

According to tradition, Mariabrunn is the oldest place of pilgrimage in the vicinity of Vienna. The foundation of its church and monastery are shrouded in legends of the repeated miraculous finding of a statue of Mary in a well. To the chagrin of many art historians, these legends are generally much better known than the actual history of the sanctuary’s construction, as Mariabrunn has been largely ignored by research. Even though the triumphal arch of the choir boasts his initials, it is a little known fact that Emperor Ferdinand III laid its foundation on April 1st, 1639, and promoted its expansion. It is the sole merit of the art historian Peter Fidler that, despite contrary hypotheses, its architect could finally be identified as Filiberto Luchese. In his article, the author takes up and expands on this research results.     


Bernadette Reinhold
"… SO DEAR TO MY HEART …": CAROLINA AUGUSTA’S NEW SALON
IN THE HOFBURG AND THE MEMORIAL CULT SURROUNDING EMPEROR FRANCIS

A picture entitled ‘The salon of the Empress Carolina Augusta in the Palace at Vienna’ has turned up in the endowment of the House of Hessen which, as of yet, has not been consulted by researchers on Vienna’s Hofburg. The room, which was refurbished in the neo-classical, second rococo style in 1841 – 42, has been identified as the Emperor’s bed chamber in which he died in 1835. His wife, Carolina Augusta, had the room, which was originally held in the classical style, made smaller after the Emperor’s death in order to erect a memorial chapel there. It was of special concern to her to keep her deceased husband’s memory alive. Even during his lifetime, the myth of the ‘benevolent Emperor Franz’ was widespread – due not least to the Empress’s herself – and was to play an important role in the politically hard times prior to the Revolution of 1848. The private salon of the Emperor’s widow, as depicted in the endowment picture, also resembles a compact memorial shrine which, upon her request, was open to the public, thus becoming a further part of the Imperial memorial cult.


Elisabeth Oberhaidacher-Herzig
THE STAINED-GLASS-WINDOWS IN THE PARIS-CHURCH SAINT GILES (SANKT ÄGYDIUS) IN RAACH

Since the 16th century, the parish church in Raach was under the auspices of the lordship of Wartenstein. Princess Franziska von Liechenstein had the meanwhile desolate church refashioned in the 1870’s. The restyling of the windows was of particular importance. The statues of the saints in the north apse are arranged according to a scheme which has been common since the High Gothic period, while the neo-Romanesque medallions and reliefs form a unified whole around the miraculous statue. Close contacts within the international Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi have now made it possible to find the original drafts for the stained-glass windows in Belgium, works by Henri Dobbelaere from Bruges. It appears that his works were initially introduced to Austria on the occasion of the 1873 World’s Fair in Vienna. Thus it has been possible to identify this glasswork, unique in its kind in Austria, with the name of its creator and to restore the lost knowledge about the existence of the windows in Belgium.     


Eva-Maria Höhle
RECONSTRUCTION AND NEW CONSTRUCTION: HISTORIC PRESERVATION AND ITS TAKE

Explaining what an original, a copy, a replica or reconstruction is, is opposed to the definition of ‘monuments’ in German and Austrian monumentprotection. The result is that, in the strict meaning of the world, reconstruction is a special variety of contemporary building after a monument has disappeared. Even in the world of historic preservation there are efforts to broaden the traditional concept of the ‘monument’ or to redefine it according to its basic idea. Taking a look at early 19th century France, in which the destruction following the Revolution was still apparent, one can see that reconstruction is part of a healing process and search for identity in the aftermath of great losses. This also helps us to understand why the debate on reconstruction is being carried out so heatedly in Germany, while in other European countries it is not much more than an incidental topic. It is essential that all the parties of discussion – whether it be action groups in search of the past, the curators of historic monuments as solicitous advocates of original monuments, or the architects with their avant-garde tendencies and feelings of being left out – take each other’s views seriously and reach consensus based on rational arguments. Experience in Poland has shown that the inflationary increase and reproducibility of monuments does not only lead to the depreciation of original monuments, but also decreases people’s perception of authenticity and the passage of time.