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Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege Heft 1/2, 2009

ÖZKD Heft 1/2 2009

Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst- und Denkmal-
pflege 2009, Heft 1/2

DIE SALZBURGER RESIDENZ 1587–1727. VISION UND REALITÄT

Buch Kurzinfo

Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege Heft 1/2, 2009

Untertitel: DIE SALZBURGER RESIDENZ 1587–1727. VISION UND REALITÄT

Erscheinungsjahr: 2009

Seiten: 163 Seiten

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 15.—


Zu bestellen bei: Verlag Berger


AUS DEM INHALT


Roswitha Juffinger

Vision und Realität. Die Salzburger Residenz 1587–1727

Ingonda Hannesschläger
Die Salzburger Residenz und die Denkmalforschung. Die Dokumentation der Residenz in der Österreichischen Kunst-
topographie von 1914 durch Hans Tietze und Franz Martin
als Ausgangspunkt für einen neuen Forschungsansatz

Walter Schlegel
Baumassnahmen des Fürsterzbischofs Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1587–1612)   

Norbert M. Grillitsch
 
Zur Ausstattungsgeschichte der Residenz in Salzburg
von 1587 bis 1619

Stephan Bstieler
Die Sala Terrena der Salzburger Residenz und ihre Ausstattung

Lisa Roemer
Rom in Salzburg. Ein Beitrag zur Landkartengalerie
der Salzburger Residenz   

Christoph Brandhuber
 „Recreatio Principis“. Fürsterzbischof Franz Anton Fürst
von Harrach und seine „Retirade“

Christoph Tinzl / Anna Kromas
Buon Governo. Harrach, Rottmayr und ihre „Schöne Galerie“. Hinweise zu Bestand und Restaurierung

Imma Walderdorff
Zu den Gemäldegalerien in der Residenz unter Fürsterzbischof Franz Anton Fürst von Harrach (1665–1727, Erzbischof 1709–1727). „Beschreibung der in der Gallerie
sich dermalhen befindenten Gemählen“

Imma Walderdorff / Roswitha Juffinger  
Rekonstruktion der Bilder-Hängung eines Wandabschnitts der „Schönen Galerie“



ENGLISH ABSTRACTS

Roswitha Juffinger
PREFACE

The article explains the concept behind the present edition of the ÖZKD, a series of publications which specialise in the knowledge of art and care of monuments. The most recent research results on the Salzburg Residence are presented by the scientific team. Their work focused on two main topics: the building activities and furnishings during the reign of Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau around 1600 (Walter Schlegel, Norbert M. Grillitsch, Stephan Bstieler, Lisa Roemer) and particular aspects of building activities and paintings in the „Retirade“ and „Schöne Galerie“ under Archbishop Franz Anton Duke Harrach, 1709 to 1711 (Christoph Brandhuber, Roswitha Juffinger, Imma Walderdorff). Additionally, significant restoration activities within the residence are described and the results from the restoration of the wall painting by Rottmayr in the „Schöne Galerie“ are published for the first time (Christoph Tinzl, Anna Kromas). To round off the edition, details are given about the genesis of the 1914 publication of the Österreichische Kunsttopographie (Hans Tietze und Franz Martin) on the profane monuments of the town of Salzburg; still the only complete published description on the Salzburg Residence
(Ingonda Hannesschläger).



Ingonda Hannesschläger
THE SALZBURG RESIDENCE AND THE RESEARCH OF MONUMENTS:
A NEW APPROACH FOR RESEARCH USING, AS A STARTING POINT, THE  „ÖSTERREICHISCHE KUNSTTOPOGRAPHIE" WRITTEN BY HANS THIETZE UND FRANZ MARTIN AND PUBLISHED IN 1914

The Österreichische Kunsttopographie (ÖKT) was the only text previously available on the residential complex of Salzburg. The research team (formed in 2006) defined its goals for the new text as the evaluation of this key monument within a European context and from around 1600 (i.e. beginning of the Baroque period) a time when substantial changes and extensions commenced founded on the older medieval material, up to 1803. Prior to the publication of the ÖKT, the history of research in the 19th century about the profane monuments of Salzburg is illustrated by the key persons and their work methods. Further scientific research was shaped by the accomplishments of Hans Tietze and Franz Martin. Although the biography of Tietze and his art historian methods have been analysed during the 20th century, the legacy from the historian Franz Martin, who died 1950, remains outstanding. The starting point for both scientists was the in-depth study of the ‘originals’ (which could be general architecture or a single art-object) combined with a comprehensive editing of historic sources. Building on this foundation, further analysis of the residence in Salzburg will be expanded by the modern research techniques of the 20th century and the evaluation of data’s from archaeological excavations, restorations and their documentations, and building alterations of the 20th century along with the reports resulting out of them. Cooperation between the communities for scientific research and the care of monuments is, in this context, a condition „sine qua non“.


Walter Schlegel

BUILDING HISTORY. NEW FINDINGS

During the years 1985 – 1997 the process of rebuilding, adapting and restoring parts of the Salzburg University resulted in a lot of new knowledge being gained regarding the building history of this former Prince Archbishop residence. This was assisted by both intensive archaeological examinations and building analysis which accompanied the building activities. Consequently, several historical sources have had to be re-examined in light of the new knowledge. Along with new or underestimated and reinterpreted archive sources; research has now succeeded in a reconstruction of the building developments in a wider context during the reign of Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1587-1612), whose additions substantially increased the structure and dimensions of the Salzburg residence. Through the comprehensive proving of the original planning idea, the question for an overall mastermind behind the whole concept remained to be answered. With some considerable certainty the person most likely to be responsible is the architect who had been called from Italy by Wolf Dietrich: Vincenzo Scamozzi.


Norbert M. Grillitsch
CONCERNING THE INTERIOR HISTORY OF THE SALZBURG RESIDENCE FROM 1587 TO 1619

This article deals with the building and interior history of the Salzburg Residence between 1587 and 1619. The relationship between the Roman antitypes and their implementation through the work of Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau is also considered. Thereby, it becomes clear that the implementation took place not so much within a formal artistic frame but more in one declaring a certain level of ambition. Combined with this, is a strategy of representation which Raitenau became familiar with as a young man in Rome and which he attempts to utilise in a smaller scale in his Salzburg building activities. The so called Wolf Dietrich-Oratorium and the related anteroom on the 2nd floor south wing of the „Dietrichsruhe“ are examined in detail. However, because documents concerning the design of the oratorio have not yet come to light, the evaluation of the paintings has been achieved through stylistic comparison. From such comparisons it is deduced that the artist probably trained in Tuscany/Rome. A drawing by the Sienese painter Allessandro Casolini, which could have served as a draft, supports such a thesis. Another section of the article is to be understood as a contribution to how the original appearance of „Dietrichsruhe“ i.e. the two courtyards within the western part of the residence, may be reconstructed. In this area modernisation works were carried out at the end of 18th century by the last Prince Archbishop Hieronymus Duke Colloredo. These and the alterations made for the Habsburg family in the 19th century have caused radical changes to the structures original appearance. On the basis of paintings by the Dutch perspective architectural artist Vredeman de Vries, (at least one of his paintings is known to have been included in the Archbishops collection) analysis tries to attempt a less architectural, more aesthetic based visual reconstruction from the perspective of such contemporary observers.


Stephan Bstieler
THE SALA TERRENA OF THE SALZBURG RESIDENCE
AND ITS INTERIORS

The Sala terrena forms part of the wings of the Salzburg residence which were built by Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1587 – 1612) with work commencing in 1605. It was a connecting link formed from open arcades between two enclosed gardens. These garden courts were equipped with niches, grottos and fountains. Of the former interior of the columned hall only the grotesque ceiling paintings have remained. These were discovered during building works in 1989. The frescos, which date from around 1608/09, cover five out of six ceiling sections of the groined vault. The artist is unknown. In Austria and southern Germany examples of late 16th and early 17th century grotesque decorations are scarce and usually based on Italian examples. However, the wall paintings of the Sala terrena of the Salzburg residence are influenced more by German/Dutch designs. The closest correlations to be found are the ornamental engravings of Theodor de Bry, Andreas Lüning and Corwinian Saur.


Lisa Roemer
ROME IN SALZBURG. CONTRIBUTORY ASPECTS TO THE  „LANDKARTENGALERIE" OF THE SALZBURG RESIDENCE

The „Landkartengalerie“ (gallery of maps) was created during the reign of Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1587–1612). Beside a set of wall paintings of towns and countries, these murals also contain several Rome related illustrations; a plan of antique Rome, a view of contemporary Rome, as well as illustrations of obelisks and both triumphal and spiral columns. For the first time, these columns and obelisks, as well as the inspiration for both Rome illustrations, could now be discovered. The source for the Roma antica was found to be Pirro Ligorios Anteiquae Urbis Imago dating from 1561. For the Roma moderna, Mario Cartaros Urbis Romae Descritptio dating from 1575, as well as the large format map of Rome by Antonio Tempesta dating from1593.
The four obelisks re-erected under Sixtus V. as well as the Roman triumphal columns and the spiral-columns from the old St. Peters church were used as spoils during the counter-reformation. Brought into the service of the Christian god, they were established as symbols of Christian victory over the heathens. Moreover, the juxtaposition of the two Rome illustrations emphasises the status of the Christian Roma sancta as the inheritor of the heathen metropolis and similarly stands in the context of catholic reform. The maps of the empire of Alexander the Great and of the Imperium Romanum, found in close proximity to that of antique Rome, produce two options of interpretation of the Salzburg map-murals. These interpretations are connected to the dual role of the Prince Archbishop: the greatness, power and splendour of the ancient empires were being used to underpin the ambitions of the Prince. The providential importance of those empires as pathfinders for Christianity, which emphasised the roots and also the universal ambition of the Catholic Church, conformed to the counter-reformation attitude of the Catholic Archbishop. Attached to the article is a list of all paintings of the „Landkartengalerie“ and possible sources for their inspiration.


Christoph Brandhuber

„RECREATO PRINCIPIS“. PRINCE ARCHBISHOP FRANZ ANTON
FÜRST VON HARRACH AND HIS "RETIRADE"

Archbishop Franz Anton von Harrach was prince and ruler within the newly constructed representative rooms of his residence. A private and human person, he required his “Retirade” to be somewhere he could live free from ceremony and etiquette. He gave the furnishing and equipping of this room his loving care, which he supervised personally on a day to day basis. Under the watchful eye of his ancestors, whom he had commissioned Frans van Stampart to paint, he would take it easy and relax after his days work was accomplished. Aloof yet modest at the same time, Franz Anton, who is considered to have been the most popular of the Salzburg rulers is, through little insights, revealed here as a human being in a tangible way: We catch him enjoying his secret pleasures, tobacco and chocolate; we discover him collecting objects of gallantry; we hear him praising England and observe him reading the newspaper. Rarely is the history of a room able to reveal such an intimate insight into the character of a ruler as is allowed in this, his private refuge. Long after his death the people lamented that he had given them everything they could have wished for, except his immortality.


Christoph Tinzl / Anna Kromas
BUON GOVERNO – HARRACH, ROTTMAYR AND THEIR
„SCHÖNE GALERIE“ – ASPECTS OF SUBSTANCE AND RESTORATION

In addition to clues concerning the emergence of the old Salzburg residence, the present article deals first and foremost with an inventory of furnishing for its „Schöne Galerie“. The main focus here is on the ceiling paintings from 1711 by Johann Michael Rottmayr. Because of their extraordinary preservation, these retain a special position within the total oeuvre of this Laufen (near Salzburg) born painter. Presented from the perspective of the restaurateur, the visually perceived phenomenons of the surface, material, technology and condition, along with a number of scientific test results, are considered within the historic context. The results are based on the conservation and restoration activities on the interior surfaces during the period October to December 2007. These were undertaken by the Salzburger Restaurierungswerkstätte Diplom-Restauratoren Tinzl and documented and scientifically analysed by Anna Kromas in her B.A. thesis (FH Hildesheim). This is considered to be a further step forward in the knowledge of Rottmayrs work. It complements the current body of information which has grown immensely in recent years.


Imma Walderdorff
„BESCHREIBUNG DER IN DER GALLERIE SICH DERMALHEN BEFINDENTEN GEMÄHLEN.“
ASPECTS OF THE PAINTING GALLERIES IN THE SALZBURG RESIDENCE UNDER PRINCE ARCHBISHOP ANTON GRAF VON HARRACH  (1665–1727; ARCHBISHOP 1709–1727)

For the first time the present article provides an insight into the painting collections of the Erzstift Salzburg during the reign of Prince Archbishop Franz Anton Harrach (1709-1727). This insight is based on the analysis of the earliest inventories dating from 1711, which give detailed descriptions of each single piece of art. Harrach made representative use of the „Alte Galerie“ which had been installed by his predecessor Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau and which had existed since the early 17th century, the „Große Galerie gegen St. Peter“ which had been constructed by Guidobald Thun 1667/1668 as well the „Schöne Galerie“ which he built himself and in which his painting collection was kept without modification from 1711 till 1803. As a result of the work undertaken on this historic inventory, twenty five paintings formerly hanging in the Harrach galleries of the Salzburg Residence have now been identified. From this seemingly small number, it is already easy to see that the galleries of the Salzburg Residence under Franz Anton Harrach contained outstanding examples of European art.


Imma Walderdorff / Roswitha Juffinger

RECONSTRUCTION OF THE HANGING ORDER OF A SECTION OF THE  „SCHÖNE GALERIE“

The „Schöne Galerie“ which was built by Franz Anton Duke Harrach contained 70 paintings, 42 from the former collections of Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (reigned 1587-1612) and Guidobald Thun (reigned 1654 – 1668) with 28 being procured by Franz Anton Harrach himself. The fortunate fact that the historic inventories partly mention the dimensions of the pictures allowed a partial “virtual” reconstruction of the hanging arrangement on the southern wall of „Schöne Galerie“. The result shows that the enormous number of pictures could only be accommodated by hanging them, without gaps, over the entire surface between the skirting and the ceiling cornice. As regards art historian interests, the fact that Harrach preferred paintings dating from the first half of the 17th century, rather than more contemporary pieces, is of some importance.