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Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege Heft 3/4, 2009

ÖZKD Heft 3-4 2009

Österreichische Zeitschrift
für Kunst- und Denkmal-
pflege 2009, Heft 3/4

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Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege Heft 3/4, 2009

Erscheinungsjahr: 2009

Seiten: 201

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 15.—


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AUS DEM INHALT:

Mária Sándor
Die „Goldene Marienkapelle“ und das Grabmal des Universitätsstifters Bischof Wilhelm in der Bischofsburg von Pécs. Ein Beitrag zu einem vergessenen Kapitel der mitteleuropäischen Kunstgeschichte

Rolf E. Keller
Zwei Heiliggrabtruhen – Original und Replik?

Markus T. Huber / Matthias Weniger
Gotische Wandbilder in Schildthurn, Neumarkt sowie Buchkirchen am Wald und die Salzburger Malerei um Conrad Laib

Johann Josef Böker
Ein mittelalterliches Bauaufmass aus Zwettl

Karl Neubarth  
Porphyr – Mandelscheck – Bedeutung von Steinen

Christina Wolf
Paul Dax – Maler und Hofglasmaler König Ferdinands I. und sein möglicher Anteil am Wiener Neustädter Kaiserfenster  

Cornelia Reiter   
Zu einem bisher unbekannten Bildnis Denis Diderots von Jakob Matthias Schmutzer im Kupferstichkabinett der Wiener Akademie

Heinrich Thommen
Franz Pforr in der „Franzensburg“. Ein „kaiserlicher Schlüssel“ fürs Mittelalter   

Christian Preining   
Ein Wiener Empire-Sekretär in der Hofburg zu Innsbruck

Ernst Czerny
Gustav Klimt und die ägyptische Kunst. Die Stiegenhausbilder im Kunsthistorischen Museum in Wien und ihre Vorlagen

Ulrike Emberger-Gaisbauer
 „Die eine ist am Leben geblieben, die andere ist tot ...“ Egon Schiele: „Mutter und Kind“ („Die ausgebrannte Mutter“), eine Datierungsfrage als Grundlage für den Denkmalschutz   

Rainald Franz /  Martina Straková
Die „Hohe Warte“ von Brünn. Dušan Jurkoviè Projekt einer Künstlerkolonie und die Geschichte und Restaurierung seiner Villa

Inge Podbrecky
Das Katzenhaus. Eine Bisher unbekannte Arbeit von Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlando?   

Ingrid Scheurmann
„Mit der öffentlichen Denkmalpflege in Fühlung“. Denkmalpflege und bürgerschaftliches Engagement

Markus Pescoller
Restaurierung und touristische Erzählung



ENGLISH ABSTRACTS

Mária Sándor
THE „GOLDENE MARIENKAPELLE“ AND THE TOMB OF BISHOP WILHELM, FOUNDER OF UNIVERSITY, IN THE BISHOPS CASTLE, PÉCS

In the 1980’s, archaeological excavations took place between the northern facade of the cathedral of Pécs and the medieval town wall. In the course of these excavations the foundations of the first university, founded in 1367, came to light.. The university’s founder was King Ludwig I., the Great, of Anjou, its benefactor the then Bishop Wilhelm von Bergzabern (1361–1374). In the west of the excavated remains of the university buildings, the „Goldene Marienkapelle“ was found which, prior to then, was known only from written sources. The chapel was founded in 1355 by Bishop Miklós of Poroszló. It served as the burial chapel for the bishop and after the foundation of the university, as the university chapel. As a result of these archaeological excavations the plan of the chapel and its precise location were clarified. Furthermore, within the nave, a tomb constructed from stone came to light; that of Bishop Wilhelm. In the west of the excavated building remains, a further masonry tomb was uncovered which proved to be filled with the broken remains of sculpted stone; a sculpture cemetery. Following their conquest of Pécs in 1543 the Turks had apparently plundered the existing graves, filling them with broken pieces of sculptures and other stone carvings. The finds can be dated to the third quarter of the 14th century. Included amongst the vast number of gothic architectural fragments recovered were pieces of the tomb of Bishop Wilhelm. The construction of the tomb and the sculptural decor of the chapel are characterized by two influences: analogies may be made with the art of Avignon, as well as to the French influenced style of the Viennese sculpture from around the middle of the 14th century.


Rolf Keller
TWO HEILIGGRABTRUHEN. ORIGINAL AND REPLICA

The painted ‘Heiliggrabtruhe’ [„Holy Grave“ built as a chest] from Baar (Swiss Canton of Zug) is dated around 1430. It belongs to a rare category of objects, which include two  other similar late middle age chests, one from Magerau (Convent of Cistercian nuns in Freiburg, Switzerland) and a second in Wienhausen. A most interesting fact is that another very similar trunk has become known, having previously been in private possess in Linz until ca. 2003. The Linz trunk is less complete and not in such a good state of preservation. The guardians of the tomb are very similar, as are the openings of the tracery. A comparison of both trunks reveals that the Linz trunk is a copy based on the one from Baar. However, the available photographs don’t allow a precise classification of the Linz object. The dating possibilities include that it is contemporaneous with the Baar trunk, the second half of the 15th century or even from the period of Historism. An indication as to its current location would help to answer this question. As to matters of style, the Master of the Baar trunk is mostly influenced from Basel art but also with a little influence from Oberrhein (Germany).


Markus T. Huber / Matthias Weniger

GOTHIC WALLPAINTINGS FROM SCHILDTHURN, NEUMARKT AND BUCHKIRCHEN AM WALD, AND SALZBURGS PAINTINGS FROM CONRAD LAIB

In the East Bavarian region which was historically attached to Salzburg and in areas along the Austrian border on the far bank of the River Inn, wall paintings of a remarkably high quality have survived. Characteristic attributes of style and ornament link these wall paintings found in the churches of Schildthurn, Neumarkt and Burgkirchen am Wald which, until recently, have not received much attention. The paintings were made around the middle of the 15th century and seem to show direct influence from the Salzburg based workshop of Conrad Laib. The question arises as to whether the same workshop group was responsible for the wall paintings in Salzburg’s Franziskanerkirche which, following analysis by Otto Demus, is attributed to Conrad Laib.


Johann Josef Böker
A MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURAL AND DRAWING OF ZWETTL; CONCERNING THE OEUVRE OF HANS VON KREUZNACH FROM BRNO

A gothic architectural drawing in the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München (Munich), surviving today as three fragments, shows on its recto a plan and an elevation of an ambulatory choir with flying buttresses.  This has been identified as the first project by Hans of Kreuznach for the church St. James in  Brno (Czech Republic). The verso exhibits the plan of a Late Gothic star vaulted choir whit buttresses, and a combined ground plan, showing two churches in half only: on half is identifiable as a Late Gothic project for the completion of the church St. Urbain in Troyes, the other half shows the choir of the monastic church of Zwettl in Austria, including its details of pillars and profiles. Furthermore the plan that can be attributed to the master Strasbourg architect, Hans Hammer, demonstrates the renewed interest the last decade of the 15th century took in the architectural style of the High Gothic period.


Karl Neubarth
PORPHYRY – MANDELSCHECK – MEANING OF STONES

The significance of a materials substance for the overall effect of works of art is demonstrated by two examples; porphyry and „Mandelscheck“. Both examples are types of stone which, in older literature, are often described as marbles. From the geological point of view, these materials are very different; one is a red porphyry, a volcanic material quarried by the Romans in Upper Egypt over a period of 300 years. It was held in high esteem because of its purple colour. In Constantinople, such spoils brought from Rome were exclusively used there by the Emperor. The other example discussed is „Mandelscheck“, a lime breccia, which was reserved for one person only, Emperor Friedrich III. The flagstone of his tomb is made from this special stone.


Christina Wolf
PAUL DAX – PAINTER AND GLASS PAINTER OF THE COURT OF KING FERDINAND I: HIS POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE EMPEROR WINDOW IN WIENER NEUESTADT

The focus of this analysis is on the painter and glass painter of King Ferdinand I, Paul Dax (1503–1561), a Tyrolian, little known to the scientific community. The versatile works of Paul Dax are known chiefly from written sources. Hitherto, only a single painting has been attributed with confidence to him: a self portrait from 1530, which is in the collection of the Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum. Compared to his work in oil painting his work as glass painter is even less well known. It has been proven that Paul Dax produced not only many small format glass panels with coat of arms (many of these on behalf of Ferdinand I., for whom he worked from 1542) but also monumental scenic windows which were produced in great numbers throughout Europe during the 16th century. In Austria there are only a few examples proven and for which the artists are generally unknown. Three windows preserved in Georgskapelle in the Castle of Wiener Neustadt belong amongst these gorgeous cimelia. This analysis is a first attempt to confirm Paul Dax’s contribution to the scenic windows of Wiener Neustadt. This uses comparisons of stylistic methods between these scenic windows and two glass paintings depicting popes which are to be found in the collection of the Diözesanmuseum in Brixen (Southern Tirol, Italy) the latter being, with some considerable degree of certainty, by the hand of Paul Dax.


Cornelia Reiter
CONCERNING AN EFFIGY OF DENIS DIDEROTS  FROM JAKOB MATTHIAS SCHMUTZER IN THE KUPFERSTICHKABINETT OF THE WIENER AKADEMIE

Within the rich collection of drawings of Jakob Matthias Schmutzer (1733–1811) to be found within the Kupferstichkabinett of the Akademie der bildenden Künste Vienna, there is an effigy which clearly reminds one of the facial features of the famous philosopher of the French enlightenment, Denis Diderot. In comparison with known effigies of Diderot, this article discusses Diderot´s discourse about making his effigy, and tries to place this new found portrait within this discussion. This also casts light on the artistic intentions of Schmutzer, mainly concerning his pedagogic reformations at the Viennese Academy. These were primarily influenced by his apprenticeship at Johann Georg Wille, in Paris.


Heinrich Thommen
„FRANZ PFORR AT FRANZENSBURG“, AN „IMPERIAL“ KEY TO THE MIDDLE AGES

Only since 2005 was it understood that the Costümsammlung” given by Franz Pforr (1788–1812) as a legacy to his friend Ludwig Vogel (1788–1879), was actually drawings of costumes. Astonishingly, among these drawings are many studies which Franz Pforr made in the Franzensburg, a building within the park of Laxenburg, near  Vienna. The castle, which opened in 1801, was fitted out with historic building components dating from the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and should be after the will of Emperor Franz II./I., a place of reflection on Habsburg tradition. The young academy scholar Pforr copied portraits, weapons and rooms in Franzensburg and, whilst there, seemed inspired to do both his paintings of Rudolf of Habsburg. Pforr´s way of working shows how he adapted himself to the Austrian context, which was in crisis, shaken by the Napoleon wars. The present study is to be seen in context with a more comprehensive study of the newly discovered sketches of Pforr, to be published by the author under the title „Im Schatten des Freundes – Arbeitsmaterialien von Franz Pforr im Nachlass von Ludwig Vogel“, 2010.


Christian Preining
A VIENNESE „EMPIRE“ BUREAU AT THE HOFBURG, INNSBRUCK

This piece of furniture is part of the collection of the Hofmobiliendepot (Furniture Museum) Vienna and, since 1815, has belonged to the inventory of the Imperial Hofburg of Innsbruck. After analysing the piece of furniture and associated documentation, and following comparison with similar objects, a clear conclusion could be made in respect of date and location as well proof of time and amount of restoration activities carried out in the last century. Furthermore, the context of the present description allows chronological ordering of previously undated pictures and brings new knowledge about similar types of furniture. Creator of the analysed bureau was Josef Anton Gorbach from Vorarlberg (Hörbranz at Bregenz). His signature places the finished piece of furniture in Vienna on the 15th of January 1814. Its former location was not, therefore, Innsbruck which was occupied by Bavaria at that time, but in the Viennese residence or one of the summer residences around the city. It is possible that this was not a piece ordered by the Viennese court, but bought as a finished masterpiece of Josef Anton Gorbach, around the year 1815. In conjunction with a comprehensive restoration of the Innsbruck Hofburg during 2009/10, this bureau, like most of the other furniture, was also restored. In conclusion, it is clearly explained how much the guidelines and basic thoughts on restoring and caring for monuments have changed during the last hundred years.


Ernst Czerny

GUSTAV KLIMT AND EGYPTIAN ART. CONCERNING THE PICTURES IN THE STAIRCASE OF THE KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM IN VIENNA AND THEIR DRAFTS

In the year 1891 Gustav Klimt delivered the pictures „Ägyptische Kunst I“ and „Ägyptische Kunst II“ which had been ordered for the decoration of the spandrels and lunettes of the main staircase of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. Today these are counted as one of his most spectacular early works. Klimt composed his scenes from real life objects and elements. However the drafts for these pictures are classified as unknown. It was only recorded that the objects used as models for the paintings did not form part of the house collection. Careful analysis has now made it possible to identify all the sources for the drafts of Klimt’s staircase paintings. The picture elements are based on partly coloured, partly black and white images in archaeological and art publications of the late 19th century. This gives an interesting and surprising view into the workflow of the young artist and his method of using sources.


Ulrike Emberger-Gaisbauer
„DIE EINE IST AM LEBEN GEBLIEBEN, dDIE ANDERE IST TOT….“ EGON SCHIELE: „MUTTER UND KIND“ („DIE AUSGEBRANNTE MUTTER“) – A QUESTION OF DATING AS BASIS FOR MUNUMENTAL PROTECTION

The oil painting „Mother and Child“ („Die Ausgebrannte Mutter“) of Egon Schiele which was presented in autumn 2008 at the Viennese Gallery Wienerroither & Kohlbacher was a sensation for experts and collectors, because very rarely oil paintings of Schiele are offered for sale on the Austrian art market. Only small format landscape pictures from his time at the academy sometimes appear. For classification of the painting for protection and interdiction of export, it was essential to date it because the first version of the theme which had, between 1909 and 1912, been repeated several times by Schiele; also required consideration. The starting point was the provision given in the specific publications (Otto Kallir, 1966; Rudolf Leopold, 1972), after which the painting was dated to around 1909. According to this dating, the painting would play a precursor role within the oeuvre of the artist, because the pieces done around 1909 were still influenced by the decorative Jugendstil as well as inspiration from the Gustav Klimt early phase, but „Mother and Child“ already contain expressionistic forms. With the dating given in newer literature at around 1911 (Jane Kallir, 1990, or Edwin Lachnit, 2007) the painting was no longer such an outstanding art and art historian piece because the other Mother and Child versions from around 1910 and 1911 show the same maturation. The present article outlines the art historian analysis  of the department for export prohibition of the Federal Office for Protection of Monuments including infrared-analysis. Export permission for the painting „Mutter und Kind“ was finally granted because none of the published theories could be explicitly proven and also the experts gave contradictory advice. The final evidence that this object was a monument worthy of protection could not be produced; the enigma of the dating remains unsolved.


Rainald Franz / Martina Straková
THE „HoOHE WARTE“ OF BRNO. DUSAN JURKOVIC’ PROJECT OF AN ARTIST’S COLONY AND THE STORY AND RESTORATION OF HIS VILLA

In the year 1906 the villa at the edge of the town of Brno, built by the Slovakian architect for himself and his family, was finished. Its importance in the development of modern architecture in Moravia is based on autochthon and international architectural roots. The building of Jurkovics is to be compared with plans of Josef Hofmann for the villa colony at Hohe Warte in Vienna. The villa, which was simultaneously a model house and living space, marks an important break within the Oeuvre of the most established architect of the Moravian Modernity. Since 2006 the villa is under the care of the Moravian Gallery in Brno, for analyses and restoration. The goal is to restore the building once more as a key work of the Brno Jugendstil. It contains elements of Moravian wood architecture in a kind of arts-and-crafts movement which is combined symbiotically with modern building techniques. The inspiration of popular ornamentation and building techniques as a basis for the architecture of the Modernity is especially clear in the Oeuvre of Dusan Jurkovics.


Inge Podbrecky
THE „KATZENHAUS“. AN UNKNOWN WORK OF FRITZ VON HERZMANOVSKY-ORLANDO?

Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlando (1877–1954) is more usually known as the author of surreal-parodist prose and for his drawings of baroque mythic worlds than as an architect, which was his actual profession. The present article presents a building which probably came to existence through participation with Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlando. He studied at the Viennese Technische Hochschule under Karl Mayreder and Carl König, and worked in cooperation with his colleague Fritz Keller in a common bureau, between 1910 and 1912. During these years two houses were built by them: One in Vienna 5th district, Wehrgasse 22 and a semi-detached house for Herzmanovsky himself in Vienna 18th district; Czartoryskigasse 5-7. On an adjacent plot at Gersthofer Straße 15­17, a project was submitted for Fritz Keller´s brother, Ernst. The drawings for this project, one of which is published here, emphasizes a partial authorship of Fritz von Herzmanovsky, whose Oeuvre is now enhanced by this drawing.


Ingrid Scheurmann
„IN TOUCH WITH PUBLIC OPINION“. PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS AND CIVIC INVOLVEMENT

Based on the argument of Alois Riegel that the preservation of monuments is a request of society, the present article analyses the relationship of the preservation of monuments by professionally run state departments and civic engagement. The focus of this article is placed around 1900, the time when scientific professionalism concerning methods of preservation of monuments was developed, separating the professional scientists from the non professional societies which had initially raised and popularised the notion of monument preservation. Calls for teaching the preservation of monuments are to be understood as reaction to this alienation. The emphasis on education, which definitely has to include the topic of monument preservation in order to create the spirit of nation, shows the endeavour to legitimise these thoughts in society. After 1975 the relationship of professional bodies for the preservation of monuments and the public became more complicated. This was because there was now no public agreement about the „öffentliches Interesse“  [„...public interest...“, text of the Austrian preservation act] for preserving monuments. In reality, the professional preservation was put into question by reconstructions and theatrical staging of historical actions. A new definition of the law concerning the responsibility for the preservation of monuments is necessary, as well as a critical reflection of the much praised identity content of monuments; all the more so because the „we“ which is the basis of such a common thinking is, in a world of pluralism and trans-nationalism; no longer an automatic condition.

Markus Pescoller
RESTORATION AND TOURIST NARRATION. LUCIE HIESS IN WIRKLICHKEIT ANDERS (P. HANDKE) (LUCIE WAS CALLED DIFFERENT IN REALITY)

This article concerns the German version of an English speech held in Florence which was titled by the author for the meeting „The Image of Heritage, Changing Perspectives, Permanent Responsibilities” (organised of ICOMOS Committee for Theory und History of Conserving and Restoration). The conservator (from southern Tyrol, Italy) Markus Pescoller, boldly attempts to interpret the day-to-day treatment of cultural heritage as a process of acquirement. He analyses this process by using modern models of philosophy (theory of speaking, theory of narration, theory of discourse). Pescoller deliberately excludes traditional theories and legalistic frameworks. He already considers „the talking“ (about monuments) as actions resulting in decisions and activities, which as cultural interactions, should involve all stakeholders equally. By leaving familiar territory, Pescoller thus tries to come closer to the topic from a new approach free from presupposition.
The author is currently working to complete a publication where the theoretic models are worked out in detail and demonstrated by specific examples of concrete events. The publication titled „Restaurierung und Erzählung. Vom Ablauf einer Restaurierung“ will be published by Siegel in the spring of 2010.

English abstracts translated by Andrew C. Leggatt