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Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege, Heft 1/2 2011

ÖZKD 2011, Heft 1/2

Österreichische Zeitschrift
für Kunst und Denkmal-
pflege 2011, Heft 1/2

Buch Kurzinfo

Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege, Heft 1/2 2011

Erscheinungsjahr: 2011

Seiten: 202 Seiten

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 18,00

Zu beziehen beim Verlag Berger


Marianne Pollak

Die k.k. Zentralkommission und der Beginn der archäologischen Denkmalpflege in Aquileia

Elena Kozina

"Lauteres Gold wie durchsichtiges Glas“ (Offb 21,21). Einige Überlegungen zum Lichtbegriff in der Zeit der grossen Kathedralen

Petr Cehovský
Neue Erkenntnisse zur Bauplastik im mährisch-österreichischen Thayatal in der Spätgotik und Frührenaissance von 1470 bis 1560

Manuela Legen / Günther Buchinger / Doris Schön / Renate Kohn
Die malerische Ausstattung in der „guten Stube“ der ehemaligen Dorfschmiede von Kaiserebersdorf

Jana Zapletalová
Der Wiener Stuckateur Giovanni Maria Antonio Tencalla

Nina Kallina
Die Attikafiguren des ehemaligen Stadtbancogebäudes  Wien 1, Singerstrasse 17–19

Lieselotte Hanzl-Wachter
Das Appartement der Kaiserin Maria Ludovica in der Wiener Hofburg

Dagmar Sachsenhofer
Der „Ananasdamast“. Textiles Symbol kaiserlichen Machtanspruchs

Werner Telesko
Der Gemäldezyklus Erzherzog Franz Ferdinands in der „Neuen Burg“ in Wien. Ein Beitrag zum habsburgischen Geschichtsverständnis am Vorabend des Ersten Weltkriegs

Silvia Freimann
Zum Rokoko-Revival im Fin de Siècle in Malerei und Stuckatur – ausgewählte Beispiele

Ralph Andraschek-Holzer
Kartausen in Bildzyklen des 20. Jahrhunderts: Eine „Phänomenologie“ der Ansichtenfolge


The „k.k.  Zentralkommission“ and the
commencement of archaeological monument care in Aquileia

The discovery, exposure and restoration of early Christian mosaics in the cathedral of Aquileia were a great moment in archaeological research as well as an example of successful conservation from the turn of the 19th and 20th century. After the initial historic and archaeological studies of the building in 1893, the „Zentralkommission“ conducted comprehensive research and restoration in 1906, exposing hitherto largely unknown parts of the early Christian building and the unique mosaic floors dating from the 1st quarter of the 4th century AD. The extraordinary good state of preservation of the decorated floors is due to the fact that soon after completion, they were buried beneath rubble due to the raising of levels during building alterations. This levelling layer was thick enough to save the mosaics from destruction by middle-age grave excavations. After completion of the archaeological investigations in 1912 the requirements of heritage preservation and religious aspects had to be reconciled. After a long process of discussions, the goal of conservation of the mosaic floor in situ was achieved by integrating it into the functioning church space. Projects in the „Küstenland“ of the late Habsburg monarchy, comparable in terms of archaeological and conservation aspects, offered increased economic support for a poor area and marked the beginning of cultural tourism in the Northern Adriatic.

Some reflections on the concept of light in the time of the great cathedrals

In this article some aspects of the middle-age concepts of the use of light are presented, which were, beyond the dominating theological level, deeply anchored in secular culture. In contrast to the spacious, daylight illuminated sacral buildings of East-Rome, the architecture of the West was dominated by muted, artistically designed light, which created a mystical atmosphere. Equally symptomatic was the increasing spread of the synchronous use of language concerning light as a metaphor, which became conspicuously popular in sacral and profane literature from the early 12th century onwards. Whereas in the sacral literature the light metaphor was transferred mainly to the spiritual field, profane poetry used it almost without limit on everything that was good and noble. Here not only the persons and their virtues were radiant, but also their features, expressions, clothes, even the objects surrounding them. Additionally, the ‘brilliance’ of objects, an intellectual and universal formula such as physical beauty, was always equated to their transparency. This phenomenon of metaphorical perception of materiality can also be observed in the reception of art, and especially in glass painting. The colourful glass windows of churches were held in high regard, after the primary visual impression, not for their light-transmitting qualities.  Rather they were protecting the inner church from the outer world, whilst producing their own otherworldly light. A testament to the idea of glass windows as walls of glass which „gave birth to light“ is the once high percentage of ornament and architectural elements used in stained glass painting.

New awareness about architectural sculpture in the region of the Moravian-Austrian Valley of the River Thaya / Thayatal in Late Gothic and Early Renaissance between 1470 and 1560.

From the analysis of the architectural sculpture of this region, it is clear that various artistic and political connections manifest themselves. This resulted from the close political ties between Austria and the Bohemia at this time, that noble families owned possessions on both sides of the river and additionally, that the river Thaya was an important trade route between Krems and Brno. The Austrian stonemasons, both from Vienna and Eggenburg, at the end of the Late Gothic period, were more frequently present in the area of the Moravian Thaya-Valley than elsewhere. The presence of the Wiener Bauhütte was to be found equally in both regions. This probably resulted from clients who were able to afford the highest quality workmanship provided by the master craftsmen from the Wiener Bauhütte. At the end of Late Gothic, the strongest artistic impulse emanated from Vienna and Krems, which not only applied to architectural sculpture but also to architecture. In contrast to the Late Gothic period, artistic exchange between northern Lower Austria and south Moravia concerning architectural sculpture was equal. Out of stylistic analysis of the architectural sculpture it becomes clear that within the valley region of the river Thaya, stonemasons of the Wiener Bauhütte, the Eggenberger stonemasons guild, stonemasons of south Moravia and, in early Renaissance, Italian/Hungarian(?) stonemasons (who decorated the so-called Mauthaus in Stein an der Donau) had been active.

The former blacksmith’s shop in Kaiserebersdorf, XIth district, Kaiserebersdorferstrasse 314

During the restoration of the former blacksmith’s shop in Kaiserebersdorf, once a suburb of Vienna and today part of the XIth district of Vienna, interdisciplinary research works were conducted. These works, ordered by the Bundesdenkmalamt, comprised comprehensive archive research, art historian work, restoration, archaeological surveys of the building, laboratory analyses and palaeographic research. The results included an extensive history of previous ownership, the artistic decoration of the building and the general appearance of a renaissance craftsman house in Lower Austria at this time. The article follows a methodological approach, first presenting questions to be put regarding aspect of monuments preservation and criteria for restoration which accompanied the uncovering of important wall paintings in the so called „Gute Stube“ (parlour) of the village blacksmith’s. The second part of the article deals with the building history of the Baroque period and its function as blacksmith’s shop, proven as such from 1578 till 1888. The paintings of the first phase were dated to the late 16th century and iconographically interpreted as ‘paradise arbour’. The historic context gives the financial background of the blacksmith, in close proximity to two imperial castles. Finally the paleographical analysis of two inscriptions combined with figural scenes, interpreted as depictions showing a fable or proverb signifying that the client was a protestant forced to encode his religious sentiments because the early phase of the counter-reformation in Austria had already begun. The „Gute Stube„ will be used in the future as a restaurant.

The Vienna Stuccoer Giovanni Maria Antonio Tencalla

The stuccoer Giovanni Maria Antonio Tencalla (1674–1754) has not been until recently much known as a stuccoer but rather as the husband of the granddaughter of Carpoforo Tencalla (1623–1685). This paper reconstructs his life story and offers an overview of both his surviving work and the one which is now only documented in archives. Although, G. M. A. Tencalla came from Bissone near Lake Lugano, he spent most of his life in transalpine area especially in Vienna where he settled down and became a member of the local stucco guild. G. M. A. Tencalla was the son of the recently rediscovered painter Giacomo Tencalla (1644–1690/2). Despite the significant archive documentation, we know only a fraction of all Giovanni Maria Antonio Tencalla’s work. Examples of Tencalla’s preserved work is a stucco decoration from the year 1727 applied in the library hall in the Göttweig Abbey and a rich stucco decoration in the sacristy of St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna which was realised by Tencalla in the period of 1732–1735. We have an archive documentation reporting on Tencalla’s decoration of the merchant Bartolomeo Paduzzi’s house in Spiegelgasse and Zwettl Hof in the center of Vienna. In the 1720s, Tencalla also worked for the count Friedrich Karl von Schönborn in the Göllersdorf Palace.

The statues on the facade of the former „Stadtbancogebäude“, Vienna 1st district, Singerstraße 17–19

The article deals with the statues on the façade of the former „Stadtbancogebäude“, built between 1750 and 1754 by the architect Franz Anton Pilgram, based on the Palais Rottal. Within this context, their history is reconstructed from the time of the original construction by Pilgram to the present day, in order to provide reasons and basis for a reconstruction and/or restoration and reinstatement of the sculptures. Specifically, previously unpublished plans dating from the 19th century and held in the Austrian Staatsarchiv, the State Archive, form the starting point for this research. Amongst these plans was a façade sketch dating from 1815 and clearly a structural detail of the original Pilgram building. A draft of the façade of Singerstraße, dating from the year 1845 and showing details of a proposed storey addition, formed another link in the chain of inquiry. Finally, documentation dating from 1980 was obtained from the architectural offices of Eva Mang, who were commissioned to complete a survey for renovation works, as well as photos from the Federal Office for the Protection of Monuments dating from 1986 and 2000, showing the recent condition. Only five statues are still in situ. Another five, in very poor and fragmented condition, are stored in the so called „Karo-Magazin“, a storage vault in the basement of the „Neue Burg“, at Vienna Hofburg. From the chronology sequence yielded by the photo and plan material, it becomes clear that four of the present statues are from the original construction of the 1750s (statue of Abundantia, Neptun, Merkur and Constantia) and a further statue appears to be from the later construction phase in 1845, when the additional storey was added. The origin of the remaining five statues could not be determined. There were no further clues within the literature nor within the files of the Federal Office for the Protection of Monuments, the Austrian "Bundesdenkmalamt", concerning translocation of statues from the winter Palace of Prince Eugen to the building of the former „Stadtbancogebäude“. Consequently the author was only able to confirm two statues from this source.

The Apartments of Empress Maria Ludovica in the Viennese Residence, „Hofburg“

The apartments of Empress Maria Ludovica in the Viennese Residence, „Hofburg“, took pride of place within the Viennese court. In 1809, the Empress entrusted Count Franz Anton Harrach with the draft design work and artistic direction for the creation of this concerted, highly coordinated synthesis of artwork, or „Gesamtkunstwerk“. Through letters from the Empress to her husband, Emperor Franz II (I) and reports by the court administration, many details concerning the planning and realisation of her apartments are known. Recently further ‘jigsaw pieces’ came to light regarding the Empress’s apartments. Sensational amongst them is the discovery of a second description of the bedroom of the Empress, found within the collections of the Princes Esterházy. Beside previously identified pieces of furniture, further items have also been tracked down.

The „Ananasdamast„ (Pineapple-Damask) – Textile Symbols of Imperial Claims to Power

During the 19th century a red silk tapestry with a distinctive decoration became an essential media of representation at the Imperial Viennese court: the so-called Ananasdamast. After analysing the written and pictorial sources, the history of the use of this very specific textile wall covering was, for the first time, documented. This resulted in many of the previously held opinions within the research community being disproved. The „Ananasdamast“ was not first used, as previously supposed, as a private interior in the Picture-room of Archduchess Sophie in 1839, but actually several decades earlier and within a total different context. From as early as 1808, espaliers made from „Ananasdamast“ were used during the highest ceremonial events, such as crownings in Bratislava or Prague, with it’s pattern linking back to Italian damasts of the 18th century. From the 1870s onwards, under Emperor Franz Joseph, uniformity in the furnishing of living and representative rooms in the Viennese Hofburg, along with other Habsburg castles, was introduced. In contrast to other imperial symbols such representative drapery outlived the end of the monarchy. Even today, Acts of State of Republic Austria take place against a back-drop of red Ananasdamast from the Viennese court.

The cycle of paintings of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in the „Neue Burg“ or „New Castle“ of Vienna. A contribution to comprehending Habsburg history on the eve of the First World War

During the late phase of the Habsburg Monarchy the fundamental necessity for forming an „Ahnensaal“, an ancestral hall, was affirmed in various programmatic scripts. Corresponding attempts by Archduke Franz Ferdinand to implement a monumental historic gallery in the New Castle in Vienna demonstrate the difficulties which came up through attempting to realise these types of picture cycles. Archive research has now been proven that the Archduke first ordered a draft for a pictorial program from Johann Alexander Freiherrn von Helfert (1820–1910). For this task, Helfert engaged the historian Josef Lampel (1850–1924). In July 1914, on the occasion of the dissolution of the „Militärkanzlei“, or Military chancellery of Franz Ferdinand, a ‘progress report’ was complied, showing that only a tiny number of paintings were complete at that time. Lampels and Helferts drafts, which set up the historic events without iconographic tradition offered in the foreground, were hardly a success. In contrast to this, the topics finally realised for the cycle hold the advantage that they not only show the historic events but also positioned the historic persons to the fore. Because of this, the cycle of paintings thus implies an ancestral gallery.

The Rokoko-Revival of painting and stucco work at the Fin-de-Siècle

The article deals with the so called „Drittes Rokoko„ – „Third Rokoko“ by analysing examples of decorative painting and stucco work. The painting of both the saloon of Villa Nunwarz in Linz, and of the foyer and staircase within the house Maderstraße 3 (respectively Brucknerstraße 8) in Vienna IVth district, are symptomatic examples of the style-synthesis from the turn 19th to the 20th century. Stucco work from the interior of buildings on the Vienna „Ringstraße“ were chosen to draw attention to style diversity within this specialised arts and crafts field. The detailed descriptions of the sites are combined with illustrations of the historic and art-historian backgrounds of the second wave of the Rokoko-Revival in the Fin-de-Siècle.

Carthusian monasteries presented in pictorial cycles of the 20th century.
A phenomenology view of the image sequence

This paper is dealing with cycles of topographic views. It attempts to create a methodology for the analysis of such cycles, based on the example of four view cycles with „carthusian“ topics from early 20th century. Main criteria of analysis are universality, memorability, variability, and individuality. These aspects are regarded to be important for the analysis of pictorial sources like view cycles when additional sources at scarce. The anthor suggests that this set of criteria can be applied to further research on topographic views as „published“ phenomena as well as on pictures per se within the framework of „cultural studies“.

English abstracts translated by Andrew C. Leggatt