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Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege, Heft 4/2011

ÖZKD Heft 4, 2011

Österreichische Zeitschrift
für Kunst und Denkmal-
pflege 2011, Heft

Buch Kurzinfo

Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege, Heft 4/2011

Seiten: 269 Seiten

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 9,00

Zu beziehen beim Verlag Berger



Wolfgang Czerny
Totengedenken im Spätmittelalter. Überlegungen zum Werk Hans Valkenauers, insbesonders zu dem nicht vollendeten Kaiser-
monument für den Dom zu Speyer

Georg Steinmetzer

Wie sah die Dürrnberger Kirche einst aus? Erkenntnisse und Vorschläge

Clemens Standl

Das Hofbogengebäude der Salzburger Residenz

Anna Fundárková

Das Pressburger Palais von Palatin Paul Pálffy

Günther Buchinger/Elisabeth Hudritsch/Paul Mitchell
Das sogenannte Saalgebäude im Wiener Augarten.
Erforschung und Sanierung eines kaiserlichen Lusthauses

Wilhelm Georg Rizzi

Ein Theaterprojekt für den kaiserlichen Hof von Antonio Beduzzi

Jana Zapletalová

Ad Andrea Lanzani: Gemälde für die Wiener Trinitarier

Hanns-Paul Ties

Michael Angelo Unterbergers Hochaltarbild im Bergkirchlein von Donnersbachwald (Steiermark). Eine Stiftung Maria Theresias

Manfred Koller

Die Architekturfarbe im historischen Stadtbild und heute:
Freyung und Dr.-Ignaz-Seipel-Platz in Wien

Anna Mader-Kratky

Liturgie im engsten Kreise. Die Kammerkapellen im Leopoldinischen Trakt der Wiener Hofburg

Manuel Weinberger
Sakralräume in Idealplanungen zur Wiener Hofburg im 18. und frühen 19. Jahrhundert

Marlene Strauß-Zykan
Zur alten Währinger Pfarrkirche in Wien. Ein neu entdecktes Werk von Baumeister Matthias Gerl

Martina Markovska/Martina Griesser-Stermscheg/Elisabeth Hudritsch/Gabriela Krist

Die Sammlung anatomischer Wachsmodelle im Wiener Josephinum:
Wachsrestaurierung als Forschungsgegenstand

Sandra Hirmann-Mihelák

Österreich – Bayern: Denkmalschutzregelungen im Vergleich (1923–1938). Von der Manifestierung des österreichischen Denkmalschutzgesetzes 1923 bis zum Anschluss Österreichs an Deutschland 1938

Bianca Fink

Ensembleschutz – quo vadis? Eine juristische Analyse

Andreas Lehne
Das Haus „Zur goldenen Kugel“ am Wiener Platz am Hof. Weitere Fakten

Elisabeth Oberhaidacher-Herzig/ Christina Wolf  
Mittelalterliche Glasmalerei. Erforschung und Restaurierung


Commemoration of the dead in the Late Middle Ages. The unfinished imperial tomb
for the Speyer Cathedral

In 1514 the sculptor Hans Valkenauer was commissioned by Emperor Maximilian I. to construct, in late Gothic style, the Emperor’s tomb for Speyer Cathedral, fragments of figures from which are held in Salzburg Museum.
The monument, designed in the form of a circular temple with columns sporting alternate male and female rulers (primarily Saliens and Staufers, buried in Speyer Cathedral), is based on the literary source from the philosopher Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus. Between 119 and 121 he composed the Vitae Caesarum (collection of life stories of the twelve Caesars), one of the most important testimonials to historical and biographical literature of the early Roman Empire.
Through the centuries the „Vitae Caesarum“ were used as the model for the portrayal of ruling historical figures. Having moved up from Regenburg, Hans Valkenauer created commemorative epitaphs and head stones in Salzburg. The statues for the Emperor’s tomb in Speyer were intended to be embossed and delivered to Speyer. However, by 1519, Valkenauer was elderly and Emperor Maximilian I., late with his payments, died; the tomb remained unfinished. What remained, apart from the impressive statues, was the concept to design a kind of tempietto as a memorial to the ancestors, set up for the purpose of imperial propaganda within a church. Aside from his own tomb, the Emperor’s Monument in Speyer was the most original „architectural vision“ of Maximilian I.

Building and Planning History of the Dürnberger Church (late 16th Century)

The pilgrimage church of Our Holy Lady in Dürrnberg is a remarkable building. Situated in a small hamlet high over the salt-mining town of Hallein near Salzburg, it is built entirely of red limestone. Next to the sober hall building, rises a proud campanile, which gives the church an Italian appearance. The building was begun in 1594 as commissioned by archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau in the midst of a parish dominated at that time by protestant salt-miners, and was completed around 1612 by his successor Markus Sittikus von Hohenems. Since its beginnings, given the unstable ground and hence foundations, it was in need of constant repair and restructuring. Many later renovations and reconstructions therefore changed the original appearance of the church, Reconstructions during the 17th century, possibly by Santino Solari, resulted in significant changes to the façade, and substantial repairs during the 18th century altered the interior, which now presents itself as a baroque hall.
In the past the church has been linked repeatedly to Venetian and Northern Italian architecture, though without a convincing argument. The results and analysis of the building structure as well as of archival sources, lead to a reconstruction of the church whereby its form is shown to clearly derive from that of two churches of the Urbino-Tuscan Quattrocento: the church of San Bernardino in Urbino, and the pilgrimage church of the Madonna al Calcinaio in Cortona, both designed by Francesco di Giorgio Martini around 1480. From these the church in Dürrnberg draws not only the heavier edges of the façade supporting an antiquish pediment, but also the very dramatic verticality leading up to the vaulted ceiling of the hall. A further model for the sober cella -shape of the nave would be the church of Sant Aurea in Ostia, designed in the 1480ies as well by Baccio Pontelli, Francesco’s pupil.
With its quattrocentesque peculiarities the „templum christianum“ of Dürrnberg has no stylistic parallels with the architecture around 1600 in the region of Salzburg or even Southern Germany. The unknown master who designed it was using models which were by then over a hundred years old. It might consequently be a deliberate regression, owing to the wishes of the patron. It should not be excluded that one may have been following the buildings of Francesco di Giorgio, as these facades conceived to be looked at from afar would also appear appropriate for the requirements of the pilgrimage church in Dürrnberg. Rather than for the aspect of the elevation, the upper level of the campanile appears aimed at the vista of the Salzach-valley, wide-open like a palace balcony room (altana) that is even covered by a wooden coffer ceiling. Moreover, the remarkable construction of the tower, in the lighter interior of which a staircase turns around four free-standing slender pillars, would indicate a more profane purpose from the outset as a belvedere.   

The „Hofbogengebäude“ at Salzburg Residence

The „Wallistrakt“ is a wing of the extensive complex of the prince archbishop’s sprawling Salzburg Residence. It comprises diverse architectural components built during various construction phases. Separated from the prince archbishop’s residence during several re-constructions and changes of ownership, the apartment in the Wallistrakt has not previously been discussed in literature in association with the actual prince archbishop’s Residence.
Built during the first constructional stage starting in 1604, the so-called „Hofbogengebäude“ (arched construction surrounding a courtyard) served originally as the accommodation suites of the prince archbishop, Wolf Dietrich of Raitenau (1587–1612).
The building was erected between 1604 and 1606 in the „Frohnhof“, the medieval forecourt of the cathedral. Here there was enough space to rapidly establish new living quarters for the prince archbishop without disturbing the operation of the Residence or having to demolish bourgeois houses. After the Hofbogengebäude was completed in 1606 the medieval residence was then free for further restructuring and modernisation.
In specialist literature, the Hofbogengebäude has been repeatedly associated with the Venetian architect Vincenzo Scamozzi. It is accepted that Scamozzi stayed in Salzburg in 1603/1604 whilst preparing plans for a new cathedral as well as for the refurbishment and extension of the Episcopal residence; however, archival proof for this is lacking.
The five passages that were originally planned for the Hofbogengebäude (whose construction commenced in the earliest phase) can be unambiguously associated with Scamozzi’s design for the cathedral. However, as subsequent modification of the original layout of the façade shows, there was a change of plan (or planner) at some point during the 1604 to 1606 building phase.
The prince archbishop’s apartment was located on the second floor, the piano nobile of the building. To the north, the Hofbogengebäude was connected directly to the „Carabinierisaal„, the sala grande of the Salzburg Residence. From there the apartment extended southwards, with the prince archbishop’s private chambers being located at the most southerly extremity. A richly stuccoed ceiling led into a garden hall, the so-called sala terrena, which opened towards the „Hofgärtl“ located to the west. This giardino segreto was surrounded by a high garden wall. In this paper it was possible to confirm the designation of the hall as sala terrena despite it not being recognisable as such today. Furthermore, it has been feasible to establish the original architectural structure as well as the composition of the materials and colours of the plaster surfaces dating from the time of the construction of the Hofbogengebäude.
As early as the time of Wolf Dietrich’s successor, Markus Sittikus of Hohenems (1612–1619), the Hofgärtl and the sala terrena appear to have been abandoned, with a three-sided cloister with an extra storey being erected within the garden walls and the sala terrena bricked up. The architect for these alterations is likely to have been Santino Solari as the layout of the structures and the architectural presentation are closely related stylistically to Solari’s secular buildings in Salzburg.

The Pressburg Palais of Palatine Paul Pálffy

The art-historical context of the origins, construction as well as the architectural and artistic importance of the garden palace Pálffy in Pressburg, has been extensively discussed if not entirely clarified.
Considerably less well known are the reasons and motives of the owner of the residence, Paul Pálffy (1592–1653), to have erected such a magnificent palais in close proximity to the royal castle.
In 1632, the Emperor appointed the then President of the Hungarian Chamber („Ungarische Kammer“) to manage and organise the renovation of the Pressburg Castle.
Four years later, Pálffy initiated construction of his own garden palais. Pálffy’s garden residence is regarded with a considerable degree of certainty to be the work of the court architect Giovanni Battista Carlone, with Johann Alberthal (Giovanni Albertallo) and his partner Antonio Aquilino directing the initial stage of its construction.
Many other well-known Italian and German master builders participated in the completion of the residence, which in its time and with emphasis on its gardens, ranked amongst the most extraordinary phenomenon of the Habsburg monarchy.  In 1649, after Pálffy had been elected Hungarian Palatine (representative of the Emperor in Hungary), the political importance of his garden residence increased accordingly. Despite the owner emphasising the importance of his Palais in Pressburg in his will, and requesting his descendants to conserve it, the building was abandoned and gradually left to decay over the next two centuries.
Today, only fragmented remnants of the former residence of the Hungarian Palatine remain to remind one of its former fame and resplendence in the 17th century.

The so-called „hall Building“ in Vienna’s Augarten park –
investigation and renovation of an imperial country house

This building in Vienna’s second district is the last remaining wing of a baroque palace known originally as the Alte Favorita in der Wolfsau. The building was renovated by its present owner from 2010 to 2011 and analyzed structurally before and during the building works. The palace was built from 1654–1663 by Count Johann Franz von Trautson, but sold to the Emperor Leopold I. in 1677, remaining in Habsburg ownership until the end of the First World War. Set in an extensive park, a narrow main building of two storeys with a central tower stood at the head of a courtyard. To its left was the single-storey „Midday wing“, behind which was an ornate garden, and to its right outbuildings around a further courtyard. The complex was destroyed by fire during the Turkish siege of Vienna in 1683 and today only the lower section of the park façade of the main building and parts of the midday wing survive form the early baroque complex. The „Midday wing“ was rebuilt in its original dimensions in the early 18th century and was dedicated, as its predecessor had been, to the entertainment of guests. A vestibule opened on both sides into antechambers, which in turn led to halls, one of which was decorated with architectural frescoes by Andrea Pozzo only a few fragments survived. The façade was adapted (changes to the pilasters and upper windows) twice in the 18th and 19th centuries. Among other events, the building hosted concerts by Mozart and Beethoven. In 1923 the building was sold to the „Vienna Porcelain Manufactory“, initiating conversions and insertions, which included the erection of a more than seven metre high kiln, which survived until today. The most recent renovation has made the historic appearance of the building more transparent. Today the building is home to a restaurant, a porcelain museum and a shop.

A Theatre Project for the Imperial Court by Antonio Beduzzi

A drawing by Antonio Beduzzi in the „Mährische Galerie“ (Moravian Gallery) shows the ground plan of a large elongated theatre. A note on the rear side suggests it is linked with an imperial project, this thought being reinforced when one recalls that Beduzzi was employed from 1708 to 1712 as theatre engineer for the Viennese court. Recently, a draft sketch for this has emerged. The sketch contains not only a ground plan but also views of the auditorium and stage, thus improving our knowledge concerning this previously unknown project. Additionally the coat of arms on the proscenium arch also determines it as for the imperial court.
The corridor shown on the left hand side leading to the central box, presents itself as the Emperor’s entrance, while the public entrance is shown passing through a foyer located beneath the auditorium (confirmed on both drawings) and then on up a flight of stairs. The conceptual design of the auditorium and stage, including technical equipment, show similarities to theatre buildings by Francesco Galli-Bibiena and are typical for their time. Nevertheless, with regard to contemporary proscenium architecture Beduzzi goes one step further, though the sketch gives no indication as to where the building was to have been located.
In September 1708 it is reported through the administrator of the counts of Harrach, that Beduzzi received an order „von Ihro Mayestet daß er ein Grundriß mußte machen zu einem Comedi Haus so auf der pastei gebauet sollte warden“ („from Her Majesty that he had to draw up a ground plan for a Comedy House that should be built on the bastion“). The sketch also shows a study of deeply splayed portal walls displaying the Viennese coat of arms which was, as Salomon Kleiner’s picture shows, carried out at the Kärtnertortheater. Because of this, (based on the date shown on the same sketch) and the drawing in the Moravian Gallery, the imperial theatre can be dated to the last third of 1709, and can be connected to the comedy house on the bastion which Beduzzi was commissioned to design.
Under these circumstances, the search for the original location may be narrowed down considerably. The only feasible construction site is the „Bellaria“, a plateau on the defensive walls near the old city ramparts shown on contemporary maps. This was adjacent to the top end of the Leopold Wing of the Hofburg and accessible from the Piano nobile from which, via a passageway, their Majesties could arrive directly at the theatre. The plateau on the „Bellaria“ shows not only the tapered shape corresponding to the Comedy House ground plan but also all reflects features specific to the location. All things considered, this design of the Imperial Theatre architect proves to be „tailor-made“ for this location.
However, the question as to why the commission was issued by „Ihro Mayestet“ („Her Majesty“) the Empress, remains unanswered. The great passion of Joseph I. he ld for Italian opera might have been the reason and general background for the interest of the Imperial family to create another venue in Hofburg. The Kärntnertortheater appeared to be in jeopardy of being leased to German comedians, which might be the reason why the Court endeavoured to build a specialised venue in their own territory. However, of the theatre project, nothing more is heard.

Michael Angelo Unterberger’s high altarpiece in the little mountain church of Donnersbachwald (Styria): an endowment from Maria Theresia

This small church, built in 1753 in the remote mountain village of Donnersbachwald (Liezen District, Styria), contains an excellent baroque high altarpiece showing the church’s patron saints St. Leonard and St. Patrick in adoration of Mary and the infant Jesus.
In the past, the artwork had been attributed to the artists Martin Johann Schmidt and Carl Henrici. Then, after the considerable similarities of styles and motifs with those of the Tyrolean Michael Angelo Unterberger (1695–1758) were noticed, it became clear that this was actually the work of Unterberger, who had worked in Vienna.
A particularly close affinity exists with an altar painting that, in 2008, had been publicised as a work of Unterberger’s. It is said that this painting, depicting St. Wenceslas (rather than St. Henry) and St. Leopold in adoration of Joseph with the infant Jesus, arrived at the parish church of Großmeiseldorf (Lower Austria, Hollabrunn District) from the castle chapel at Bad Vöslau (Lower Austria, Baden District).
As the figures look towards the spectator, the Holy Leonard in the Donnersbachwald painting and St. Wenceslas in the Großmeiseldorf piece, stand out as of Unterberger’s religious oeuvre, with St. Leonard’s physiognomy showing a remarkable similarity to the artist’s self-portraits.
Because the erection of the church was at the instigation of Empress Maria Theresia, and at that time Unterberger not only held the office of principal of the imperial and royal academy but also worked regularly for the court, it seems quite natural to surmise that the high altarpiece in Donnersbachwald was an imperial donation. Thanks to Donnersbachwald being an established pilgrim destination, the painting was partly reproduced in a copperplate engraving by Johann Veit Kauperz.

Colours of Architecture in Urban Ensembles: Two Squares in Vienna

Colours and renderings of architecture became a topic of building research only very late. The research on single monuments by the author since about 1970 lead to the question of the changing historical aspects of colour within larger urban sites.  This study discusses the results of examinations on ten facades from 17th to 18th century within two squares in Vienna, the so called „Freyung“ and the former University-Square (now „Ignaz-Seipel-Platz“) in the old towncentre. There results can be compared with a series of illustrations from the 17th century onwards, the best of which are three oilpaintings by Bemardo Bellotto from 1759/60, now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The comparison proofs the correspondence of the results obtained from stratigrafical examinations on the built surfaces with the respective chronological aspects in Bellotto’s views. In addition we leam that facades of great churches have been left unrestored over more than a hundred years so different styles of colours were visible together within the ensembles of these squares. Finally methodical questions for the restoration of these facades according to the examined results are discussed.

Liturgy within the close family circle: the „chamber chapels“ (Kammerkapellen) in the Leopold Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace

In addition to the Gothic buildings of the Imperial Chapel and the St. Augustine Imperial Court Parish Church, the Hofburg contained a multitude of small chapels, which formed part of the royal apartments and served the private devotion of the Imperial family. At the Viennese court the term „Kammerkapelle“ (chamber chapel) has been adopted for chapels of this kind. Because of their intimate character, they are not well documented, with the first historical views emerging only in the 19th century.
In the Leopold wing with its imperial representational and residential apartments, there were situated several chamber chapels, which during the course of the 18th Century, were frequently refurbished, altered, or moved to other locations within the wing. Despite the frequent reorganisation of the chapels, the retention of patrocinia and altar pieces shows a tradition-conscious mindset which can be regarded as an example of the constancy of piety of the Habsburg dynasty.

Conceptual plans for Chapels in the Hofburg (Fischer, Pacassi, Jadeau, Neumann)

During Karl VI’s reign, ideas for grand idealistic plans for the Hofburg in Vienna were developed, in order to give the imperial residence, for the first time, a unified and representative appearance.
The chapels intended for this purpose constituted one of the most prestigious and thus challenging construction projects; unlike other rooms, these chapels were fully elaborated, with elevations provided. Some of these designs are verified as creations of the most famous architects of the time, e.g. Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, Balthasar Neumann, Jean Nicolas Jadot and Nicolò Pacassi.
These are introduced within this article and subject to brief analysis; one objective is to show similarities as well as external influences on the projects, which spread over a period of some eighty years.

The Währing Parish Church in Vienna

The artistically important Baroque Währing Parish Church underwent significant alteration during its extension in 1934; however it regained its independence and original eastward orientation during its redesign in 2001/2002.
The artistically outstanding crucifixion scene by Johann Martin Fischer has now been returned to its original place on the baroque high altar, in keeping with a previous phase of decoration.
In connection with the latest renovation of the church, the construction history of this Baroque church with its valuable paraphernalia was the object of renewed study. These were based on parish chronicles and records from the parish archive, as well as those held in the archive of the Vienna diocese. The archiepiscopal master builder Matthias Franz Gerl (born Klosterneuburg 1712 and died in Vienna in 1765) was identified as the author of the plans for the Währing Parish Church, for which the start of construction in 1753 was celebrated with a ceremonial laying of the foundation stone. Its building history was, however, overshadowed by serious financial difficulties.

The collection of anatomical wax models at the Josephinum Vienna: The conservation of wax as research topic

The collection of anatomical wax models at the Josephinum is one of the most amazing collections in Vienna. The collection was produced in Florence between 1784 and 1788 on behalf of Joseph II and originally served as a study collection for the students at the Medical Military Academy at the Josephinum. Over the centuries the purpose and use of the collection changed several times. Today it belongs to the Medical University of Vienna, Department for the History of Medicine. This paper reflects on the nowadays condition of the collection and the needs for conservation. The main goal is to preserve the whole collection and the historic interior as an outstanding ensemble from the late 18th century. Between 2003 and 2011 the Institute of Conservation at the University of Applied Arts Vienna carried out three research projects on wax- and textile conservation. The projects included the technological investigation as well as the evaluation of conservation methods for the wax models and the highly degraded silk-underlays. Recommendations for the continuous care and the improvement of the environment in the historical show-rooms were given and should be carried out in the near future. All works were supported by the Federal Office for the Protection and Care of Monuments Austria.

Austria – Bavaria: A Comparison of the Regulations concerning the Protection of Historical Monuments

When, in 1923 the Denkmalschutzgesetz (Heritage Protection Law) came into force in Austria (having been long awaited by the monument conservation bodies), it caused a number of problems, especially in the first years of its existence. There is little documented about the practical implementation of the new law and its consequences. The untested law introduced a completely new tool in the fight for the conservation of the regional and national monument heritage.
However, neither the civil servants who were to execute it nor the owners of the individual monuments were adequately informed. It is interesting that such a law could be passed in a time overshadowed by economical and financial hardship as well as political unrest; an extremely inopportune moment to prioritise conservation and heritage issues.
How was the protection of monuments achieved in countries that did not have the legal instruments? In the Free State of Bavaria, such a law was only passed in 1973. The comparison of the situation in both countries during the period 1923 to 1938 showed parallels as well as divergences in the treatment of monuments. Analytic comparison shows that the preservation as well as the protection of monuments has to be seen in context with the social, political, economical and intellectual environment of the inter-war period.

Protection of Building Ensemble – quo vadis? A Legal Analysis

Today about 35% (since 1978, 76 ensembles) of all ensembles worthy of protection are now protected by law. Theoretically there is no difference in procedure in gaining protection of a single monument or an ensemble (an assemblage of immovable objects) but the large number of parties involved, changes of parties concerned, conflicts of interest between heritage conservation, the interests of the federal state, local authorities or groups representing different interests, as well as unanswered legal questions, lead to delays and obstructions of the proceedings.
Some unresolved issues to date include questions regarding the fractional validity of a preservation order for a historic ensemble (Ensembleunterschutzstellungsbescheid) and the assessment of an application for a waiver from protection for objects included within the ensemble (Antrages auf Aufhebung des Denkmalschutzes eines Objektes im Ensembleverband). Solutions for easier implementation of such large, complex proceedings would require a major overhaul of the comprehensive heritage management law (Denkmalschutzgesetz), perhaps even constitutional and administrative reform.
To simplify the administration, an ideal sized historic ensemble should involve only a limited number of parties (up to perhaps 80) and have a defined local structure.
When looking after a historic ensemble an overlap with construction law, nature conservation and other stakeholders is inevitable. Preservation orders over historic ensembles can therefore be put in place successfully where there are more powerful instruments of regulation (old town preservation laws -Altstadterhaltungsgesetze, laws concerning the protection of local architectural heritage as far as external character is concerned – Ortsbildschutzgesetze etc.) already in place and the protection of historic monuments is not then perceived as direct intervention.
If we look at protection of listed structures holistically, and not in isolation from its surroundings, there will be a need to work towards finding partners. The joint care for an ensemble in cooperation between federal states, local authorities and the Federal Office for Historic Monuments can only be successful if there is a mutual objective in place.

English abstracts translated by Andrew C. Leggatt