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Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst- und Denkmalpflege 2013, Heft 1/2

ÖZKD 2013, Heft 1/2

Österreichische Zeitschrift
für Kunst- und Denkmal-
pflege 2013, Heft 1/2

Buch Kurzinfo

Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst- und Denkmalpflege 2013, Heft 1/2

Erscheinungsjahr: 2013

Seiten: 254 Seiten

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 18,00

Erschienen Januar 2014

Zu beziehen beim Verlag Berger


Paul Mahringer
Der Alterswert als Narrativ für traumatische Erfahrungen des 20. Jahrhunderts. Denkmalkultus, lebendige Geisteswissenschaft, Postmoderne und neue Zugänge in Theorie und Praxis der Denkmalpflege

Erwin Reidinger / Heinz-Walter Schmitz / Herbert Wurster
Stiftskirche Göttweig 1072. Orientierung – Achsknick – Gründungsdatum
Zsolt Németh

Eine frühmittelalterliche Rotunde in Goberling?

Ralf Gröninger/Marina Kaltenegger

Von der Burg zum Schloss: Bauforschung in Schloss Pottendorf
Ralf Gröninger
Die spätmittelalterliche Synagoge von Bruck an der Leitha. Bauhistorische Untersuchung und Rekonstruktion

Alfred Fischeneder
Der Albertinische Chor des Wiener Stephansdomes. Ergebnisse einer stilkritischen Bauuntersuchung

Henriette Wiltschek
Ein postmortaler Beinbruch. Zur Klebung und Konservierung eines gravierten Knochenobjekts: Der Elefantenstuhl aus Stift Kremsmünster

Géza Hajós
Jean F. Trehet und Johann Georg Hätzl. Französische Parterre-Kunst in den Barockgärten der Habsburger-Monarchie um 1700

Manfred Koller

Die Chorfassaden der Pfarrkirche Brunn am Gebirge und das kurze Gedächtnis in der Denkmalpflege

Zdenek Kazlepka

Das „neue“ Palais Collalto und Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini. Addenda zur Baugeschichte des Palais Collalto und zu Pellegrinis Tätigkeit in Wien

Tomáš Valeš
Michael Angelo Unterberger und seine Nachfolger im Dienst des böhmischen und mährischen Adels

Johannes Sima
Die Pferdeeisenbahn Budweis/Ceské Budejovice – Linz – Gmunden

Mateusz Grzêda

Über den „Wiener Barock“ außerhalb von Wien.  Das Schloss der Familie Goetz von Okocim in Brzesko-Okocim

Inge Podbrecky
Wiener Funktionalismus. Die Wohnhausanlage Vorgartenstraße


Riegl’s age value and its role as a viable narrative for the traumatic experiences of the 20th century
„Monument cult“, humanities, postmodern era, and a new approach to the theory and practice of historic conservation

Even an author of the likes of Alois Riegl was familiar with terms such as “unaesthetic” and “negative”, though he generally limited their use to questions of contemporary taste. In 1907, Hans Tietze was one of the first to express the idea that monuments do not always necessarily stand for the glories of the past. Finally Wilfried Lipp, writing in the postmodern age, laments the general loss of emotional values and their replacement by positivism following the second World War.
In light of this tradition of academic concern for values, the Neues Museum in Berlin, recently renovated in the spirit of “age value” theory (Riegl), is not only aesthetic; it also poses a relevant question. Is age value limited to mere aesthetics or can it also serve as an appropriate expression of the collective trauma experienced during the 20th century? It might be noted that age value restoration has also been applied to buildings directly linked to Nazi atrocities, such as commander quarters in Ravensbrück, the euthanasia centre in Hartheim, or in the former concentration camp in Mauthausen.
This essay examines some of the theoretical and practical difficulties encountered in the application of age value restoration to historically sensitive buildings (e.g. aestheticism) and attempts to propose viable solutions to such problems.

The Göttweig Abbey-Church

Subject of this essay is research into the founding date of the church from Göttweig Abbey-Church in lower Austria. The method used by the author is a dating process which is based on the fact that many medieval churches were positioned in the direction of the rising sun. This means that the day on which the churches were founded is often “built in” to the churches axis. The knowledge of this fact combined with the results from an astronomy inquiry and a historic-liturgic analysis make it possible to calculate and ascertain the founding date of the church.
However, the basis of this research is an architectural survey of the church, which made it possible to determine the ground plan of the original Romanesque church. While the axis of the nave is still visible, the axis of the choir had to be reconstructed. According to the different directions of the two axes it is clear, that there was a „bend“ in the axis of the structure. When the Gothic choir was build the „bend“ from the Romanesque nave hasn’t been applied.
The research shows that the church was founded in 1072. While the orientation date for the nave is the 13th March, the one for the choir is the 18th March.

An early Medieval Rotunda in Goberling?

The author argues that the Goberling church today used by the Protestant community (district of Stadschlaining, Burgenland) that has been hitherto dated either to the Carolingian period (Klaar) or the 14th century (Schmeller-Kitt) in facts dates back to an early mediaeval rotunda whose eastern part survives in today’s apse. The assumption of such a rotunda, which was probably built in the 10th century (and extended in the 14th century to create the longitudinal-plan church) is supported by investigations of the building as well as by comparisons with other round religious buildings in the Carpathian Basin, of which roughly 150 have been identified so far. The architectural analysis includes the investigation of the lighting through irregularly placed slit windows and the acoustic characteristics of the church originally constructed on an elliptical ground plan.

From Castle to Palace: Architectural Research at Pottendorf Palace

Pottendorf Palace developed from mediaeval castles. The remains of a first castle, whose existence is assumed on the basis of the mention of the local aristocracy in documents as early as the first half of the 12th century, have completely disappeared. The quadrangular-castle complex of which evidence still survives constitutes a complete rebuilding dating from around 1240–1260, consisting of a rectangular surrounding wall, three mighty towers with rusticated ashlars and a residential building („palas“). The complex was part of a group of quadrangular castles along the border to Hungary, the uniform concept for which was due to the Babenberg Duke Friedrich II (1237 446).
Extensions during the Renaissance and the Baroque transformed the castle into a palace. Franz Anton Pilgram worked as master-builder on the conversion into a Baroque palace in 1737/38 under the Starhemberg Counts. In 1802, the palace became the property of the Esterházy princes, who commissioned further building work and the conversion of the park into an English garden.
The palace chapel derives from a 12th century chapel that was soon rebuilt with a choir tower and side chapel during the Romanesque period. In the early 15th century a polygonal self-enclosed chancel was added, and in 1474 the Romanesque nave with side chapel was extended to create a three-nave hall church. The Renaissance added sacristies and a gallery.

The Late Mediaeval Synagogue in Bruck an der Leitha – Architectural Investigation and Reconstruction

Typical architectural features – the location set back from the street, the horizontal oblong acoustic windows, the architectural indications of the previous existence of a Torah Shrine and not least the discovery of the foundation walls of the extensions of what was probably a “Frauenschul” – indicate that the object under investigation is a former synagogue.
An art-historical analysis indicates that the synagogue in Bruck an der Leitha was built around 1300 and can be regarded as the best-maintained medieval synagogue in Austria. It is characterised by the high quality of the building statuary and a rare vault shape.

The Albertine Choir of Vienna’s St Stephen’s Cathedral –
Results of a critical stylistic investigation of the building

The Albertine choir is a major High Gothic structure in Austria and formed an important basis for the design of choirs in the second half of the 14th century. The choir was begun under Albrecht I and continued under Albrecht II, and was a major starting point for the large-scale expansion of St Stephen’s Cathedral. Its history begins in 1304 with the documented demolition of houses in the area of what is today the hall choir. Other dates are documented by endowments, indulgences and consecrations dating from 1323 and 1326 respectively, Albrecht II’s accession to the throne, the indulgence of 1339 and the consecration of the choir in 1340. The stylistic investigation found that the basic elements of the history of the building could not be refuted by more recent research. Contrary to what has been proposed, the pillars were built close to the time when the choir was given its vault. The completion of the choir walls, the vault and the pillars of the Albertine choir are directly related to the consecration of the choir in 1340. After it was consecrated, the choir was furnished with additional altars, tombs and further ornamentation.

A Post Mortal Fracture of the Leg. The splicing and conservation of an engraved bone object: the Elephant Chair from Kremsmünster Monastery (1554)

What is known as the Elephant Chair was made from the bones of the first „Viennese elephant“ in 1554. As a curiosity and a prestigious piece of furniture, the object is today an oft-admired part of the Kremsmünster Monastery Cabinet of Curiosities. In 2012/13, it was the focal point of a thesis at the Department for Conservation and Restoration at the University of Applied Arts. The work had suffered considerable damage as a result of secondary interventions, climatic fluctuations and transport. The multiple fractures of one bone were problematic.
The art and cultural history background of the object was investigated and stock taken of its condition. The focal point of the thesis was the conducting of a series of tests to splice the bones. A suitable adhesive was determined by means of tests on specimens exposed to a defined climate cycle and then tested for flexural strength. In addition to the splicing, stabilising measures were applied to the assembly. Conservatory proposals for the future presentation and loaning of the Elephant Chair are intended to protect the object against further damage.

Jean F. Trehet und Johann Georg Hätzl: French Parterre Art in the Baroque Gardens of the Habsburg Monarchy around 1700

The French Gobelin specialist and horticultural designer Jean F. Trehet left his home city of Paris in 1680 and found work at the Vienna Imperial Court in 1685, where he first tried to set up a carpet-making workshop. Ultimately, however, the French artist was forced to switch to garden design, which gradually became the centre of his life from around 1690.
His functions were the geometric surveying and planning of the site, the concepts for the horticultural architecture (avenues, hedges, parterres de broderie, boscages etc.) and the procurement of the materials needed. The great architects – such as J. B. Fisher v. Erlach or J. L. v. Hildebrandt – left these activities (at least) between around 1685 and 1715/20 to the officially recognised Imperial horticultural designer, who in a short time also became very popular amongst the high aristocracy.
Unfortunately, we know of only two garden plans signed personally by Trehet, one for the Mansfeld-Fondi (Schwarzenberg from 1715) garden palace on Vienna’s Rennweg (also dated „1697“) and one for the Harrach family house, now disappeared, in Rossau-Alsergrund, likewise in Vienna, from the late 17th century. Both gardens have broderies in the style that was popular in France around the middle of the 17th century. Two sketch plans from Moravia for Nikolsburg (Mikulov) for the Dietrichstein family and Austerlitz (Slavkov) for the Kaunitz family are no doubt related to these verified works. Numerous written sources show that the French horticultural designer was involved in the most important gardens of the Imperial family, such as the Neue Favorita (later the Theresianum) from as early as 1687, Schönbrunn from 1695 and the Alte Favorita (Augarten) from 1708. In the gardens of the aristocratic pleasure parks (Mansfeld-Fondi / Schwarzenberg, Liechtenstein and Trautson), he designed the structure of the parterres, procured the plants needed and designed the broderies and boscages (still new in Vienna at the time). In Schönbrunn, he worked together with the court gardener Johann Georg Hätzl, who had been in the service of the Prince-Bishop of Chiemsee up to 1694 (or 1697?) before coming to Vienna, where he had to content himself with the function of court gardener; nevertheless, he published three series of copper engravings with numerous parterre designs in Augsburg. The first appeared in 1697 and was dedicated to the Prince-Bishop of Chiemsee, the second, around 1700, to Joseph, the heir to the throne and King of Rome, and the third, around 1715, to Emperor Karl VI. The third series included, alongside the occasionally strange fantasies, a number of concrete items from Vienna, Lower Austria and Bohemia, above all material from Schönbrunn.
After his visit to Paris in 1698, Trehet must have based his ideas on the new broderie style invented by Auguste Charles d’Aviler, Daniel Marot, Louis Liger, Antoine Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville, etc. An important witness is Salomon Kleiner, who documented these gardens extensively around 1730.
Trehet’s achievement was to gradually introduce the then modern French art of the parterre to the countries of the Habsburg Monarchy from the late 17th century.

The facades of the parish church at Brunn am Gebirge and the short memory in the care of monuments

Results from purist renovations during late 19th century eclecticism have been influencing restoration-concepts of historic surfaces until today. The recent loss of the original facades of the late-gothic (about 1522) presbytery of the parish church in Brunn am Gebirge in the south of Vienna is testimony for this continued misunderstanding. The original architectural paint with plaster reliefs around the gothic windows and on the buttresses was uncovered in 1976 but destroyed during a restoration 20 years later. Neither was the singularity of this decoration as the last of its kind in the area of eastern Austria understood, nor were the written and verbal reports about the findings during the restoration 1976 checked and respected. The article refers to both sources: the relative documents and the internal developments of research and documentation of architectural paint history within the Austrian Bundesdenkmalamt since about 1970. Both were totally ignored in this case. The lost decoration is described from photographs made during and after the uncovering and the restoration 1976 as far as still possible. Finally the decorative system and its elements from c. 1522 are analyzed in the context of the stylistic development of late gothic church facades in the regions of Vienna and eastern Austria (Wien-Maria Stiegen, Wien St. Stephan, Mariazell and others).

The „New“ Palais Collalto and Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini
Addenda on the architectural history of the Palais Collalto and Pellegrini’s activities in Vienna

In 1724, Antonio Rambaldo Graf von Collalto und San Salvatore (1681–1740) determined to convert the urban Collalto Majorat Palace located on Platz am Hof next to the Jesuit church in order to be able to hold receptions in accordance with his status and the decorum of the age. The new appearance of the Collalto House with its magnificent facade and a new portal in the spirit of the classical baroque is reproduced on a copper engraving by Salomon Kleiner dating from 1733. The conversion was apparently the work of Anton Ospel (1677–1756), an Austrian architect and military engineer with a good knowledge of Italian.
The conversion had apparently been completed by October 1725, since majordomo Ippolito Bertolani acquired new damask and brocade wallcoverings, and door and window fittings for the rooms referred to as „prima camera“, „seconda camera“, „gabinetto verde“, „camera che guarda sopra la terazza“, „gabinetto della Sig.ra Contessa“, „camera di parata“, „sala“ and „gabinetto del Marchese Perlas“. The chairs were covered with the same damask. The „prima camera“ and the „seconda camera“, like the „gabinetto verde“, were decorated in green, while yellow curtains were mounted in the large hall (sala“) and the count’s study („gabinetto per studiare“). The rooms were also equipped with new lamps. The house chapel with domed vault remained undecorated and without frescoes, as did the large hall originally serving ceremonial purposes („sala“). The „fifth“ large room with the paintings of the Twelve Apostles served as chapel.
When the rooms of the palace on Platz am Hof had been furnished, the famous Venetian painter Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini (1675–1741) paid the building a visit during a brief stay in Vienna.
Antonio Rambaldo was informed by his majordomo Ippolito Bertolani about everything that occurred in the Vienna Palais Collalto during these days. „With the permission of your Excellency and the Countess and all those of good taste, it was resolved to use the fortunate meeting with the famous painter Pellegrini, a brother-in-law of Rosalba, and have him paint the altar painting that your Excellency ordered. It is only necessary to consider whether it would be better to have it decorated with the accompanying motifs and figures as is his habit or whether we should insist that, in accordance with your order, he should only paint the figures of the saints according to the design sent. It is certain to be finished in a few days, since he paints very quickly.“ In October 1725, Pellegrini, together with Daniel Antonio Bertoli (1677–1743), the draughtsman and „designer“ at the Imperial Court, first inspected the chapel and the altar decorated with golden angels on which the new painting was to be applied. All we know about the painting completed in October 1725 is that it was given an oval frame and that the figure of the saint was adjusted to the proportions of the angel statues on the altar.

Michael Angelo Unterberger and his Successors in the
Service of the Bohemian and Moravian Aristocracy

The author examines the situation of artists of the Vienna Academy in terms of works commissioned in the territory of Bohemia and Moravia. An important role was played by religious orders, in particular the Piarists and the Premonstratensians, and by the aristocracy. The latter, including the then recently ennobled, made use of the leading personalities of the Vienna Academy and their pupils, in particular for the ornamentation of their private chapels and patronage churches. The investigation of this phenomenon has also led the author to propose new attributions, identifying altar paintings in the palace chapel of Èeský Krumlow and the parish church of Dalecin as works by Felix Ivo Leicher, and the painting „St John of Nepomuk giving his tongue to the Virgin Mary with the Infant Jesus“ created for Joseph Ignaz Zebo von Breitenau and now deposited in the Plandry/Breitenau municipal offices as being an important work by Michael Angelo Unterberger, and proposes that the painting now in Jaromerice nad Rokytnou Castle made for the same patron should also be attributed to Unterberger.

The Budweis/Ceské Budìjovice–Linz–Gmunden
horse-drawn railway

The Budweis/Ceské Budìjovice–Linz–Gmunden horse-drawn railway was the first railway in mainland Europe and, almost 200 kilometres in length, the longest horse-drawn railroad worldwide. In terms of its scale, general design and logistics, it paved the way for the era of the great Austrian mountain railways. Its construction was prompted by the desire to provide a link between two great waterways, the Danube and the Vltava (which in its turn flows into the Elbe), and thus to supply Bohemia with a commodity not available on its own territory, namely, salt. It was in 1805 that the Prague professor Franz Josef von Gerstner proposed the construction of an English-style „wood and iron railway“ as an alternative to a canal,. However, it was only well after the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, from 1824 onwards, that his son was able to realize the project. Furthermore, even while the building work was still in progress, Gerstner Jr. had to give up directorship of the project in favour of his engineer Matthias von Schönerer, who on the Vltava-Danube link for reasons of cost abandoned the principle of using large-radius curves in order to achieve the greatest possible evenness in the ascents, which later meant that it was not possible to introduce steam on this line. The horse-drawn railway was opened in 1832 and immediately extended to Gmunden on the Traunsee, so that from 1834 it was possible to transport salt from Gmunden to the Vltava. The line operated successfully for over forty years until it was finally closed in 1872.

On Vienna’s Neo-baroque Architecture Outside Vienna:
The Goetz-Okocimski Family Palace in Brzesko-Okocim

This article will consider the issue of neo-baroque architecture in palace at Brzesko-Okocim, a small town in Galicia lying some 50 km east of Cracow. The palace was built in 1898–1900 and extended in 1908–1910 for Jan Albin Goetz-Okocimski, a wealthy Galician entrepreneur, owner of one of the largest breweries in the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and simultaneously an influential Polish aristocrat and politician. The oldest part of the palace was designedbythe famous Austrian architectural atelier of Ferdinand Fellner and Herman Helmer. Its extension was carried out by Leopold Simony, another Austrian architect, holding the position of professor at the Viennese Technische Hochschule.
The palace is surrounded by a wide English garden and consists of a large two-storey hall with impressive stairs, long gallery with hunting trophies, sumptuous chapel and winter gardendesigned by the prominent Swedish architect Carl Gustav Swensson. Constructed in an astonishingly homogenous Viennese neo-baroque style, it differed from other Galician chateaux and at the same time was close to many contemporaneous buildingsconstructed by Fellner & Helmer, like e.g. the so called National Casino in Lwów and Karol Lanckoro?ski’s palace in Vienna (destroyed).
Up until now, remarkably little attention has been paid to the building that, in fact, belonged to one of the wealthiest and the most modern private residences of fin-de-siècles Austro-Hungary. Even considering its present state of preservation (after 1944 the building was abandoned and a large part of its furnishing dispersed) Goetz-Okocimski’s palace is still an outstanding example of late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century residential architecture. The thorough recent restoration of the building (2010–2012) offers a rare opportunity to fill this gap and to analyze its architecture with even greater depth and breadth.
The aim of this paper is therefore to reveal essential facts from the history of the palace as well as to discuss the conditions under which it was constructed. Through analysis of original designs and documents, thehistory of the building's construction will be retraced thus contributing to the issue of the Viennese firm's, Fellner & Helmer activity in the field of residential architecture (these architects being usually discussed in the context of theatre architecture). Proper attention will be also paid to the palace's extension performed by Leopold Simony. Finally the building's predominant neo-baroque style will be considered.

Viennese Functionalism: The Vorgartenstrasse Residential Neighbourhood

This text addresses and contextualises an early and significant Viennese example of modernist urban building. The municipal residential neighbourhood at Vorgartenstrasse 158–170, planned and constructed by Carl Auböck, Carl Rössler and Adolf Hoch from 1959 on, constitutes in terms of content and form the nucleus of a multifunctional district. It consists of four ten-storey linear blocks in cross-wall construction with innovatory ground plans, and thus constitutes both a content-based and formal criticism of the closed building structure of the surrounding Gründerzeit districts: the orthogonal historical building pattern is broken up the marked diagonal position of the four residential blocks. What appears to be a huge structural intervention is, however – entirely in accordance with the international style – motivated by functional factors. Rotating the buildings allowed all the residential rooms of the neighbourhood with balconies to face south, thereby creating the same conditions for all residents. As one of the first large-scale neighbourhoods of the post-war period, the Vorgarten district was designed according to the criteria of functional urban development in the sense of Roland Rainer’s planning concept for Vienna (1961).