Zur Navigation springen |Zum Inhalt springen
 
 

Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege 2014, Heft 1/2

ÖZKD 2014, Heft 1/2

Österreichische Zeitschrift
für Kunst- und Denkmal-
pflege 2014, Heft 1/2

WANDMALEREIRESTAURIERUNG IN ÖSTERREICH

Buch Kurzinfo

Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege 2014, Heft 1/2

Untertitel: WANDMALEREIRESTAURIERUNG IN ÖSTERREICH

Erscheinungsjahr: 2014

Seiten: 286 Seiten

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 20,00



Zu beziehen beim Verlag Berger


AUS DEM INHALT

Bernd Euler-Rolle / Markus Santner
Das Salzburger Fachgespräch zur Wandmalereirestaurierung in Mariapfarr vom 16. bis 18. September 2010. Die Restaurierung der Restaurierung
       
Michael Rainer
Mariapfarr. Kunstwissenschaftlicher Traum und restaurierte Wirklichkeit
       
Robert Linke
Die Technologien der Vorgängerrestaurierungen. Wider die prinzipielle Diskreditierung der Vorgängerrestaurierung als häufiger Bestandteil restauratorischer Praxis

Markus Santner
Ein Rückblick auf das Fachgespräch zur Wandmalereirestaurierung in St. Georgen ob Judenburg vom 15. bis 16. September 2011. Monitoring und Dokumentation – Nachvollziehbarkeit durch Standards
       
Beate Sipek / Markus Santner / Wolfgang Baatz
Zustandserhebung und Monitoring der spätromanischen Wandmalereien in der Pfarrkirche St. Georgen ob Judenburg
       
Markus Santner / Renáta Burszán / Jörg Riedel / Wolfgang Baatz
Die gotischen Wandmalereien in der Vorhalle des Gurker Doms. Technologie, Schäden und Klima
       
Günther Buchinger / Susanne Wutzig   
Das Weltgerichtsbild im Dachraum der Michaelerkirche in Wien. Zur Entdeckung, Freilegung, Konservierung, Restaurierung und kunstgeschichtlichen Bedeutung einer spätgotischen Wandmalerei
       
Magdalena Schindler / Josef Voithofer / Wolfgang Baatz / Jörg Ettenauer
Wandmalereien aus Spätgotik und Renaissance im Brudermordzimmer der Burg Rappottenstein
       
Beate Sipek / Robert Linke
Das Goldene Dachl in Innsbruck und seine historischen Farbgestaltungen. Eine Bestandsaufnahme und seine Restauriergeschichte
       
Werner Telesko
Josef Ignaz Mildorfers Kuppelfresken in der Wiener Kapuzinergruft. Werk und Raum im Spannungsfeld dynastischer Repräsentation und religiöser Praxis
       
Michael Rainer / Jörg Riedel
Licht und Schatten. Die Restaurierung des Kuppelfreskos von Josef Ignaz Mildorfer in der Maria-Theresien-Gruft bei den P.P. Kapuzinern in Wien
       
Barbara Kaiser / Ernst Lux
Zur Restaurierung des barocken Deckenzyklus in Schloss Eggenberg ... oder vom Wettlauf der Atalante zum Wettlauf mit der Zeit
       
Ernst Lux
Die unsichtbare Malerei – oder wie ein im Krieg zerstörtes Kunstwerk Grundlage einer neuen Zuschreibung der Malereien im so genannten Ovidzimmer der Schönborn’schen Orangerie in Göllersdorf war
       
Angelina Pötschner / Peter Adam
Ein „peintre-architecte“ in Diensten der Grafen Harrach. Ein wiederentdecktes Werk des Tiroler Barockkünstlers Johann Gfall in der Pfarrkirche von Parndorf
       
Günther Buchinger / Friedrich Dahm / Hans Hoffmann / Paul Mitchell / Barbara Obermayr / Michael Rainer / Barbara Riedl / Sylvia Schönolt
Ludwig van Beethoven in Wien. Malerische Ausstattungen in zwei Wohnungen des Komponisten als Zeugnis bürgerlicher Wohnkultur um 1800
       
Friedrich Dahm
Die Wiederherstellung eines Gesamtkunstwerks. Camillo Sittes Mechitharistenkirche in Wien

Paul Mahringer
Work in Progress – Die Probefresken und Kärntner Landhausfresken von Anton Kolig und seinen Schülern. Zur Genese, Verlust und Inwertsetzung von Denkmalen
       
Markus Santner
Drei „vergessene“ Wandbilder im Ziereisbunker des ehemaligen Konzentrationslagers von Mauthausen. Eine konservatorische Erstversorgung



ENGLISH ABSTRACTS

Bernd Euler-Rolle / Markus Santner
Expert Discussion on the Conservation of the Wall Paintings in Mariapfarr – Starting Point, Discussion, Result

In 2010 the Bundesdenkmalamt (Federal Office for the Protection of Monuments) organised the „First Expert Discussion on the Conservation of Wall Paintings“ (Erstes Fachgespräch zur Wandmalereirestaurierung). The colloquium provided a platform for restorers and preservationists of monuments. It was sparked off by the forthcoming restoration of the important Romanesque and Gothic wall paintings in the Parish Church Our Lady in Mariapfarr. One of the main questions addressed was how the previous restoration of 1946/47 should be handled. On the basis of sample areas different approaches and possible conservation methods were discussed.


Michael Rainer

The Mariapfarr Murals: Art-historian’s Dream and Restoration Reality

The pending restoration of the murals around the belfry of the Parish Church of Our Lady in Mariapfarr confronts monument conservation with a classical dilemma: The restoration of a restoration. A survey of the restoration work carried out between 1946 and 1948 based on the surviving written sources in the files of the Bundesdenkmalamt (Federal Office for the Protection of Monuments) and the subsequent analysis of the reception of the wall paintings in art research suggests that the restoration of the murals and their subsequent interpretation breathe the same spirit. The analysis of this in terms of restoration science and art research must be the basis for any further intervention.


Robert Linke

Technologies of Previous Restorations – Versus Their Depreciation as Part of the Common Praxis of Restoration

A review of the history of conservation and restoration of murals reveals a wide variety of materials and techniques used for consolidation. The evaluation of conservation treatments of former times often shows highly damaged surfaces, which suffer from unsuitable materials applied. Anyhow, these treatments, which aimed to treat the symptoms of damage and not its cause reflect the technological know how of that time and have to be evaluated from that early point of view. By the end of the baroque period, a number of early wall paintings was covered with lime wash or lime painting and was therefore protected from any harmful surface treatment. Motivated by an exploratory urge, stoked by art historians, a number of murals were exposed again and over painted by impropriate/irreversible binding media. Frequently, these treatments, motivated by the spirit of times, were connected to a massive loss of original material. This paper gives a short overview of materials used as consolidants in the past as well as in present times and shows it’s impact on some important Austrian wall paintings.


Markus Santner

Expert Discussion on the Conservation of the Wall Paintings in St. Georgen ob Judenburg

The „Second Expert Discussion on the Conservation of Wall Paintings“ (Zweites Fachgespräch zur Wandmalereirestaurierung) with restorers and preservationists took place in St. Georgen ob Judenburg in 2011. The main topic was monitoring and documentation as well as their traceability through standards. Additionally, guidelines for condition analyses and monitoring on mural paintings and architectural surfaces were presented. In a first step the guidelines describe methods for analyzing the condition of an object (inventory/condition). In a second step some criterias for the decision about carrying out a monitoring and constitute references for monitoring were presented.


Beate Sipek / Markus Santner / Wolfgang Baatz

Monitoring of the Medieval Murals in the Parish Church of St. Georgen ob Judenburg

The late Romanesque mural paintings in the choir tower of the Parish Church of St. Georgen ob Judenburg date before or around the middle of the 13th century. In the course of an examination of the interior of the church, the murals were discovered in 1987, uncovered, restored and conservated in subsequent years. Because of salt efflorescences occurring after the conservation which endangered the substance, an extensive research project was initiated with the aim to develop a concept for stabilizing the condition of the paintings. An inventory of the murals and their condition, an analysis of the damage phenomena and the research into the relevant salt and moisture induced damage factors were carried out.
Since 2010 a group of preservationists, natural scientists and restorers worked on the development of guidelines for condition assessment and monitoring of wall paintings and architectural surfaces. The results of the current guideline content should be reviewed for their applicability. Due to the existing extensive documentation material and the fact that the last examination dates back twenty years ago, the wall paintings in the choir tower represented an ideal example. The work was performed by students from the Institute of Conservation and Restoration at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna in accordance with the specifications of the previous investigation report and the guidelines developed since 2010.


Markus Santner / Renáta Burszán / Jörg Riedel / Wolfgang Baatz

The Gothic Murals in the Outer Vestibule of the Gurk Cathedral: Techniques, Damages and Climate

In the outer vestibule of the Gurk Cathedral in Carinthia exists one of the most important gothic wall painting decorations in Austria. The wall painting cycle has a very interesting and good documented restoration history dating from the first half of the 20th century. Again and again humidity and salt problems were recorded, which are the main causes for the damages in the lower wall zone. In 2005, a comprehensive investigation program with climate measurements inside and outside the Cathedral started. In addition examinations on the technique, pigments, condition and damage mapping were conducted. Furthermore, a photo-documentation was focused on reference places for long-term monitoring. In 2010 and 2011 a conservation intervention based on the results took place.


Günther Buchinger / Susanne Wutzig

A Painting of the Last Judgement in the Roof Space of the Church of St. Michael’s in Vienna.
On the Discovery, Exposure, Conservation-Restoration and Art Historical Significance of a Late Gothic Mural


In the 13th century Parish Church of St. Michael’s in Vienna, parts of the mediaeval interior surfaces with a whitewashed mural were discovered in the roof space above the Baroque vault of a late Gothic extension of the southern side aisle. Continuous incursions of water led to the covering partially dissolving, subsequently exposing the painting. In interaction with considerable soiling on the surface and calcification, the infiltration of humidity led to damage to the painting and a non-homogeneous appearance. Exposure for restoration purposes allowed conservation measures to be applied to the entire surface of the painting and to the reconversion of the calcification. Wet chemical cleaning of the extremely darkened areas that had become exposed by themselves led to a significant improvement of the appearance and the legibility of the representation.
The mural shows the traditional image of the upper part of a Last Judgement, created in the early 1590s. The extraordinary artistic quality is based on the virtuoso differentiation between compactly outlined and sketchily drawn figures. The paper ends by investigating the question of the complex architectural-historical situation and discusses the possibility of the dual function of the multi-bay extension as a secondary sacristy and a chapel for the Bakers’ Guild. The Guild is presented plausibly as having commissioned the fresco.


Magdalena Schindler / Josef Voithofer / Wolfgang Baatz / Jörg Ettenauer

The Wall Paintings From the Periods of Late Gothic and Renaissance in the so called „Brudermordzimmer” in the Castle of Rapottenstein (Lower Austria)

The „Brudermordzimmer” in the castle of Rappottenstein shows mural paintings of two different periods. The first decoration (mural paintings on a green background, between 1480 and 1520) were shortened by some alteration of the room during the 16th century and the simultaneous adjustement of the floor levels. At the beginning of the 17th century, the room was redecorated. In the upper part, new mural paintings were applied and the lower part of the room was planked with a wooden boarding. The room was whitewashed several times in the 19th century. In the following the paintings became partially exposed by themselves and were then uncovered (not completely) before the year 1911. Therefore the walls today show a mixed state, which reduces the legibility of both layers of paintings. The presentation can be improved by finishing the uncovering, while leaving a horizontal transition zone between the two layers.
The green colour of both paintings is caused by the use of green copper pigments (basic copper carbonates, basic copper chlorides, basic copper sulphates), which may have been produced artificially. Severe damages are continuous flaking (whitewash and paint layers), microbiological growth and spalling caused by the cristallisation of salts in grains of mica. Most of these damages were caused by a water infiltration above the wall on the east side of the room or by the very high humidity, which is characteristic for the whole castle.


Beate Sipek / Robert Linke

The Golden Roof in Innsbruck and its Historic Colouring: Survey and History of Restoration

Due to its historic as well as art historic significance the „Goldenes Dachl“ (Golden Roof) represents one of the most important monuments in Austria. Conservation activities in summer 2012 enabled a closer look on the polychromy of the surface. The survey included the architecture as well as mural paintings. The results reveal a fascinating chronology of paint layers over the past centuries corresponding to the „taste of time”. A view to the history of conservation shows that conservation treatments, mainly carried out at the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century helped this monument to resist degradation or decay.


Werner Telesko

Joseph Ignatz Mildorfer’s Frescoes on the Vault of the Vienna Capuchin Crypt. Work and Space in the Field of Tension Between Dynastic Representation and Religious Practice

The Maria-Theresa Crypt in the Vienna Capuchin Crypt, completed in 1754, cannot be understood without the interaction between Jean Nicolas de Jadot‘s architecture, Balthasar Moll’s splendid sarcophagus and the ceiling paintings by Josef Ignaz Mildorfer. This interrelationship of the different genres reaches its peak in the fact that Mildorfer’s fresco of the dead rising according to the prophecy of Ezechiel (chapter 37) focussing on the radiant symbol of the Trinity in the centre of the dome shell corresponds to the imperial couple raising itself from the sarcophagus below. In this way, the paintings in the vault are integrated in a typological system whose execution in this manner is ultimately untypical of the age and also raises the question as to Mildorfer’s share in the integration of the image of the ruling couple in a comprehensive Christian and mythological context. On closer observation, it becomes apparent that Ezechiel’s prophecy, rarely visualised in monumental form in the 18th century, plays – alongside other content factors – a fundamental role in the programme of the Maria Theresa Crypt.


Michael Rainer / Jörg Riedel

The Restoration of the Fresco by Josef Ignaz Mildorfer in the Vault of Vienna’s Capuchin Crypt in the Field of Tension Between the Work, the Space and the Current Condition

The definition of the restorer’s objectives and the subsequent restoration of the interior surfaces of the Maria-Theresa Crypt at the Church of the Capuchin monks in Vienna emphasises the need for close contact between the artistic research investigations and the investigations made for restoration purposes in the preparations for a restoration project. The artistic research investigations of the decoration of the Maria-Theresa Crypt confirm the relationship between the iconographic programmes of the sarcophagus by Balthasar Ferdinand Moll and the fresco on the vault by Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer as interlocking components of a total work of art. The bright colouring of the fresco is an essential element of the content of the programme. The investigations made for restoration purposes, on the other hand, showed that the frescoes, as a result of damage by water, climatic problems and deposits of soot from the 19th century were, in the truest sense, merely a shadow of the original. After cleaning with a steam jet device, treatment with ion-exchange resins to convert the calcification of the fresco and a conservative retouching, a satisfactory restoration result can be achieved that comes considerably closer to the intended effect of the baroque fresco programme than the previous condition.


Barbara Kaiser / Ernst Lux

Restoring the Cycle of the Baroque Ceilings in Schloss Eggenberg: From the Footrace of Atalanta to a Race Against Time

The piano nobile at Schloss Eggenberg (Graz/Styria) comprises two sumptuous suites, each with twelve enfilade rooms which were furnished under considerable time pressure in barely seven years from 1665 to 1673. With its enormous cycle of ceiling paintings in lavish stucco frames it was in extent and scale unparalleled in the former Habsburg crownlands. With over 500 separate depictions, covering more than 2.400 square meters it offers a rare insight into the intellectual world of the 17th century.
Due to the rush to get the work finished on time, the pictures were swiftly painted as oil paintings directly onto the smoothed plaster base. Indeed, it was not long before the ceilings displayed signs of serious deterioration, leading to a series of profound mending and patching over the subsequent centuries. By 1993 the ceiling paintings were in a parlous state of imminent collapse.
Since then eight rooms have been successfully refurbished in a major conservation project. Removal of the layers of the multiple repairs which had taken place over three centuries revealed the idiosyncratic artistic styles of the individual painters; and the exquisite statements contained in the details of the paintings became decipherable and intelligible once more. Gratifyingly, what gradually re-emerge are the original artistic impact, individuality and quality of the paintings.


Ernst Lux

Invisible Painting: How a Destroyed Work of Art Became the Basis for Attributing Authorship to the Paintings in the So-Called Ovidzimmer in the Schönborn Orangerie in Göllersdorf

The painted decoration in the so called „Ovidzimmer“ in the orangery of the castle Schönborn in Göllersdorf is interesting not only as a restoration challenge, as the paintings have been in a very poor condition, but also by the fact that during the restoration campaign an sketchbook was found at the Würzburg University Library. After the discovery it could clearly be demonstrated that the artist Rudolf Byss is the author of the paintings. Strong side light permitted to reveal the former paintings on the white stucco marble. By retouching and reconstructing in a very restrained translucent way, it was possible to give an idea of the former splendor of the painted decoration.


Angelina Pötschner / Peter Adam

A „Peintre-Architecte“ in the Service of the Counts of Harrach. A Newly Found Fresco by the Tyrolean Baroque Artist Johann Gfall in the Parish Church of Parndorf

In Vienna and Paris the versatile Tyrolean artist, Johann Gfall (1725–1799), was taught as an architect and figurative painter by masters like Antonio Galli-Bibiena and Giovanni Niccoló Servandoni. Today all of his ephemeral works and most of his murals are destroyed, the majority of his paintings lost. Only a few works are documented by sketches, nowadays preserved in public and ecclesiastical collections. Wall paintings in Carinthia, Vienna and the Burgenland prove that Gfall was an important protagonist of the transition from baroque to classicist style in Austria. Gfall made good use of his training in Paris when starting to work for the Harrach family. The fresco in the Parndorf Parish Church already rediscovered 1990/91, was exposed and restored from 2008 to 2013. Its artistic quality did not become apparent until it was restored. The regaining of the harmonious overall impression was achieved by completing most of the missing parts with pastell crayons in a reversible technique.


Günther Buchinger / Friedrich Dahm / Hans Hoffmann / Paul Mitchell / Barbara Obermayr / Michael Rainer / Barbara Riedl / Sylvia Schönolt

The Painted Walls in two Vienna Apartments of Ludwig van Beethoven as Testimony to Middle-Class Interior Design

Monument conservation practice involves conducting detailed investigations of the architectural surfaces not only of buildings of „high culture“ but also of those of a middle-class origin in preparation for proposed interventions. This applies both to facades and to interiors, where the existence of original wall surfaces may be particularly at risk as a result of the owner’s desires for change in the light of the intended use. Accordingly, findings in the form of small exposure steps are to be obtained before any proposed architectural intervention, providing information about the quantity and quality of the historical surfaces. As a rule, documentation is all that happens and the exposure steps are closed again. In rare cases, however, a decision is made to expose larger surfaces, risking the loss of more recent surfaces. Such decisions are justified if the concealed decoration is a mural of artistic significance or if the eminent cultural historical significance of an apartment or a house influences this decision. Such as, for instance, when from 2011 to 2013 the Federal Office for the Protection of Monuments investigated two apartments in which Ludwig van Beethoven had once resided. The intangible cultural heritage, the significance of which could never be overstated, was to come into contact with the tangible heritage and increase in dimension.
The paper examines in detail the history of the construction, the owners and the decoration of these two houses – the former Palais Schwab at Kahlenberger Strasse 26 in Vienna’s 19th district, which was constructed as an early rental building in 1763-1765 for the cotton manufacturer Ignaz Schwab, and the house at Laimgrubengasse 22, in Vienna’s 6th district, built 1788-1790 and extended in 1815, where Beethoven lived from the end of June to the beginning of October 1817 and from October 1822 to May 1823. In the course of refurbishments in 2011, continuous enclosed spaces were discovered in the two Beethoven apartments and sections thereof exposed. Detailed investigations suggest that the original decoration of the Palais Schwab had not been painted over in 1817 and that the decoration in Laimgrubengasse dated from the time around 1820, with the result that in both cases these enclosed spaces constituted the setting for Beethoven’s creative work.


Friedrich Dahm

The Recreation of a Comprehensive Work of Art (Gesamtkunstwerk). Camillo Sitte’s Church of the Mecharists in Vienna

Camillo Sitte, world-famous even during his lifetime as an urban planning theoretician, was also active as an architect, sculptor and painter. It was according to his plans that the Vienna Church of the Mecharists was constructed between 1872/73 and 1874, in which he was also responsible for the design of the complex iconographic programme and, at a later date, decorating the entire interior surfaces with paintings largely by his own hand. The result was a total work of art of outstanding quality. Following water penetration as a result of war damage in 1945, the entire interior was painted in a light monochrome colour, thus causing the loss of major artistic characteristics. In the course of the last restoration concluded in 2011, it was decided after a longer discussion to re-establish the original appearance. This was relatively unproblematic on the walls, where the original polychrome version had survived and was visible following exposure. A much more difficult situation arose on the ceiling. Sitte’s paintings had been seriously damaged and were only dimly visible. Nevertheless, these remainders and the use of (distorted) historical photos permitted the reconstruction of the ceiling paintings. As a result, it is now once again possible to understand the original artistic intention of this major interior.


Paul Mahringer

A Work in Progress – Anton Kolig’s Carinthian Landhaus Frescoes and Preparatory Work. Some Thoughts on the Creation, Descruction, and Valorization of Historical Monuments

The frescoes commemorating the 10th anniversary of the 1920 Carinthian plebiscite were carried out by Anton Kolig and workshop in 1929/30 and destroyed during the Nazi era, sometime between 1938 and 1939. From the beginning they were subject to heavy criticism by German nationalists who disapproved of their modern, “permissive” style. At the same time there were many defenders of Kolig’s work, most notably the Carinthian conservator Otto Demus.
This essay aims to shed light on the special character of the creative process behind the frescoes, a process uniting the common efforts of both master and apprentices. As such, any attempt to attribute certain parts of the work to Kolig’s own hand seems largely futile. In absence of the original work, the preparatory wall paintings assume even greater historic, artistic, and cultural importance. Although only some 50 percent has survived, the preparatory frescoes are the last remnants bearing witness to the nature of the Landhaus frescoes in their colors, monumental scale, technique, and the overall creative process behind them. Their neglect in the post-war era has left these murals in a fragmented state, yet they stand as a memorial to artistic freedom; a status which becomes manifest not least in these regrettable signs of decay.


Markus Santner

Three „Forgotten” Wall Paintings in the „Ziereisbunker” from the Former Concentration Camp Mauthausen: An Initial Emergency Work for a Conservation/Restoration Maintenance

The concentration camp in Mauthausen near Linz was built in 1938, five months after the annexation of Austria by Nazi-Germany. The place was selected because of the granite quarries nearby. In autumn 1943 the SS started to build an air raid shelter. Three wall paintings depicting landscape representations (in illusionistic frames) are maintained in this bunker. Most likely they were painted by inmates who were sometimes commissioned by the SS with some art works. An inadequate painting technique and climate had caused severe damages to the paintings. An Emergency intervention in 2011 and 2012 was urgently necessary to stop the deterioration of the wall paintings. The conservation concept is based on climatic measurements as well as condition and material analyses.