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Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst- und Denkmalpflege 2015, Heft 3/4

ÖZKD 2015, Heft 1/2

Österreichische Zeitschrift
für Kunst- und Denkmal-
pflege 2015, Heft 3/4

ORT - ERINNERUNG - DENKMAL. Relikte des Ersten Weltkriegs

Buch Kurzinfo

Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst- und Denkmalpflege 2015, Heft 3/4

Untertitel: ORT - ERINNERUNG - DENKMAL. Relikte des Ersten Weltkriegs

Erscheinungsjahr: 2016

Seiten: 134 Seiten

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 20,00


Zu beziehen beim Verlag Berger

 

AUS DEM INHALT


Martin Haidinger / Paul Mahringer
Wie heute vom Ersten Weltkrieg erzählen? Die Dokumentationsreihe auf ORF „Wien heute“

Paul Mahringer

Emotionale Aneignung der Überreste des Ersten Weltkriegs über Tondokumente und Objekte Authentische Wirkmächtigkeit, Aura, Transformation und Überblendung

Christina Seidl

Kriegerdenkmäler. Das Gedenken an die österreichischen Gefallenen des Ersten Weltkriegs

Andreas Lehne
Gedanken zur gesellschaftlichen Relevanz von Kriegerdenkmälern

Lutz Musner
Der Krieg im Gebirge

Markus Wurzer
Erfahrungswelten des Gebirgskrieges 1915–1918. Ein Südtiroler Ehepaar erlebt den Krieg

Christian Terzer
Frontstellungen im Hochgebirge. Das Projekt Karnischer Kamm

Julia Walleczek-Fritz

Kriegsgefangenschaft und Kriegsgefangenenlager in Österreich-Ungarn während des Ersten Weltkriegs

Eva Steigberger

Der Lagerkomplex aus dem Ersten Weltkrieg in Feldbach in der Steiermark. Ein Unterschutzstellungsprojekt

Markus Schmoll
Das Flüchtlingslager in Gmünd. Transformation und Authentizität



ENGLISH ABSTRACTS

Paul Mahringer
EMOTIONAL APPROPRIATION OF THE VESTIGES OF THE
FIRST WORLD WAR BY MEANS OF SOUND DOCUMENTS AND
OBJECTS. AUTHENTIC EFFECTIVENESS, AURA, TRANSFORMATION
AND SUPERIMPOSITION

Emotional approaches to the topic of the First World War
can for instance be generated by an original sound document
from the time of the war and the interwar period. Examples
of this are for instance the songs „Deutschmeisterkind“ or
„Kaddisch. Der jüdische Soldat“.
In terms of architectural remains, alongside the „intended
monuments“ such as cemeteries and war memorials there is
a large number of „unintended monuments“. In this sector,
the relics of the First World War were for a long time overshadowed
by those of the second, which were more quickly
adopted by monument conservation.
Even during the First World War, Fortunat von Schubert-Soldern
perceived the monument „as, you might say, a living
individual“, speaking of a type of personification. For Hans
Tietze, in the interwar period there was the added factor
that this effectiveness can also include monuments that are
associated with negative experiences. Walter Benjamin, finally,
speaks of the aura of the work of art. Particularly in recent
years, the question has repeatedly arisen as to the effectiveness
of the relics in, for instance, the memorial sites in former
concentration camps. With respect to the remains of the First
World War, the question therefore arises whether, aside from
any nationalism, the „silent source“ can be „made to talk“
(Hans Tietze), and whether the remains of the First World
War can be approached with the same emotion of a general
feeling of humanity (Alois Riegl) without the superimposition
of the Second World War.


Martin Haidinger / Paul Mahringer
HOW CAN WE TELL ABOUT THE FIRST WORLD WAR TODAY? THE
DOCUMENTARY SERIES ON ORF „WIEN HEUTE“

Taking as an example the series of programmes on „Wien Heute“ concerning the First World War, the aim is to show what means are available to journalists today to present stories about places, monuments and events and – in between local political and other regional current events – to communicate them to a broad public so as to rouse its enthusiasm for history. The problem of presenting on television a topic for which there are few film images, and then only in black and white, is to be solved through the personalisation of the narrator, in this case Martin Haidinger. He and the camera visited historical sites that in part still survive in authentic form, such as the Vienna Naschmarkt, as well as some that no longer correspond to their appearance at the time, such as the modern lakeside town of Aspern. Some of these film locations were spectacular, such as the almost unknown “film pond“ on the Laaer Berg, while others were completely insignificant, such as a new council house block in Vienna’s 2nd district.
In most cases, historical images or films were superimposed to create a contrast or correspondence with the ­­­current loca­tions that should fascinate the audience. In addition, there were sensational documents that have never before been shown on television, such as police photos of the Yppen­markt or rare film recordings such as of Karl Lueger; sources that in part only had an indirect connection with the events of the First World War. The limited budget and time resources meant that the shooting days had to be exploited to the full. Thus for instance the weather – the rain – was spontaneously integrated into the narration. The huge success confirmed the appropriateness of the techniques and methods used in the series. With this in mind, the present contribution attempts to show how a broad communication of complex factual constellations and events, itself also an aspect of monument preservation, can be possible in short sequences.


Christina Seidl
WAR MEMORIALS. THE COMMEMORATION OF THE
AUSTRIAN VICTIMS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

The custom of remembering the warriors and the fallen is practically as old as our civilisation. Sources for modern monument culture can be found in the classicist forms of Greek and Roman antiquity and in the Celtic and Germanic nature and ancestor cults. In addition, even during the First World War, starting in 1915, various institutions, federations and monument committees were founded that drew up guiding principles and instruction leaflets for the construction of future monuments to the fallen, which they distributed to the local authorities that would be the sites for the monu­ments. Thus as early as the end of 1914, a kind of book of samples with designs for „soldier graves and war memorials“ was produced by the teachers of the School of Arts and Crafts of the Imperial and Royal Austrian Museum for Art and Industry. In Austria, there began a large-scale production of war memorials immediately after the end of the war, mostly erected in the 1920s and 1930s, with individual memorials being endowed up to the 1938 Anschluss. The mass of local authority monuments includes all the classical types of monument: obelisks, pyramids, temple motifs, columns, steles, boulders, athletic-classicist warrior figures and figures with a religious origin such as St Michael, St George and St Sebastian or Pietà-groups with fallen soldiers replacing the son of God, as well as sculptural representations of groups of dying or mourning soldiers. In some places, famous sculptors were commissioned to design the monuments, but as a rule the work was done by simple stonemasons, often in series production, with an east-west gradient apparent. In Burgenland, for instance, series production predominated, while in the most westerly province of Vorarlberg, a brochure with proposed and constructed monuments „by artists“ was still being issued in 1926.


Andreas Lehne
THOUGHTS ON THE SOCIAL RELEVANCE OF WAR MEMORIALS
How many war memorials are under preservation orders in Austria and what were the criteria used to make the selection? After these questions have been answered, the function of war memorials in modern society is addressed. War memorials have the potential to act as catalysts for gestures of international reconciliation. In the defeated nations of the Second World War, „contaminated“ by the Holocaust and war crimes, remembrance is, however, increasingly ceasing to be regarded as a common concern that strengthens a shared identity. In a more pacifistic and antimilitary post-heroic society, war memorials are being more and more seen as historical relics with above all a documentary character.


Lutz Musner
THE WAR IN THE MOUNTAINS

The article describes the special features of the war in the Alps as compared with the north-eastern and Serbian fronts, the problems faced by the Austro-Hungarian army when the Kingdom of Italy entered the war and the latter’s strategic superiority over an Imperial Army that had already suffered huge losses in men and officers in the East and Serbia in autumn 1914. At the same time, two biographies, that of the Tyrolean home guardsman Karl Ausserhofer and Lieutenant of the Reserves Dr. Josef Prochaska, are taken as examples to show the different perception of the events of the war and the increasing divide between the men and the officers.


Markus Wurzer

THE EXPERIENCE OF THE WAR IN THE MOUNTAINS 1915–1918.
A COUPLE FROM SOUTH TYROL IN THE WAR

Recent years have seen a boom in the interest in the ordinary person’s experience of the war. A number of studies have recently appeared addressing not only the experiences of the soldiers at the front but also those of the civilians in the hinterland. These papers have shown that there was not merely „one“ experience of the war but rather that the war in the mountains was perceived by each individual in a different way. In addition, they refute the mythical image of the war in the mountains as a heroic struggle of old and young riflemen against the background of a romantic mountain landscape by communicating a more authentic impression.
This article uses the field-post correspondence between the South Tyrolean Alois R. and his wife Maria to set out two heterogeneous dimensions of experience, the front on the one hand and the farm in the hinterland on the other. The article’s analysis of the different experiences of the war is based on the phenomenological layer model of Thiemo Breyer and Daniel Creutz.


Christian Terzer
THE ALPINE FRONT: THE CARNIAN RIDGE PROJECT

With the sections of the front along the Carnian mountain range, the two provinces of Carinthia and (East) Tyrol boast the only battlefields of the First World War on the territory of modern Austria. They are the focus of an interdisciplinary project under the leadership of the Federal Monuments Auto­rity involving monument conservators, archaeologists, historians and local historians aimed at acquiring protected status for the material remains along what was once the front.
The Austrian project, „The protection of the First World War front along the Carnian Ridge“ began in August 2014 with a survey along the former front line. From an archaeological and ground-monument conservation point of view, there is a huge mass of potential archaeological finds that must be recorded, classified and analysed. In addition, the project involves a wide variety of relics, from clearly circumscribed find locations and objects to structures that extend through the landscape for hundreds of metres. In every case, all these different structures must be recorded and defined in a variety of ways: in terms of location, extent, function. In addition, a uniform terminology must be developed for a systematic recording of the findings. Parameters must also be defined for the state of conservation. The first inspection in August 2014 was therefore followed by the development of a provisional documentation system containing the most important data.


Julia Walleczek-Fritz
WAR CAPTIVITY AND PRISONER-OF-WAR CAMPS IN AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

The camps set up by Austria-Hungary from 1914 on extended over significant parts of the Habsburg Empire. These enclosures were as a rule used to accommodate a large number of persons, separated according to nationalities, who needed to be confined for (military) policy reasons such as a risk to Austro-Hungarian national security. For the people affected, internment behind barbed wire meant exclusion, separation, few opportunities for movement, little variety and monotony.
The present paper examines the Austro-Hungarian prison camps, in particular the complexes in the Cisleithanian half of the Empire and, within the context of the Austro-Hungarian prisoner-of-war camp system, presents an overview of figures, camp and organisational structures. In addition, a perspective is provided of other aspects of relevance for the topic of prisoners-of-war, such as the forced labour of prisoners and their treatment.


Eva Steigberger

THE FIRST WORLD WAR CAMP COMPLEX IN FELDBACH IN STYRIA –
A PROTECTION PROJECT

2014 presented an occasion for a joint project between the Department for Archaeology and the Department for Inventory and Monument Research at the Federal Monuments Authority to place the former Feldbach camp under protection. The Feldbach camp is a typical First World War prisoner-of-war camp. Its structural and archaeological remains are documents that show how the war also had a direct effect on the hinterland. In no other prisoner-of-war camp on Austrian territory have objects survived in such a large number as at Feldbach. The wide variety of building types demonstrates the functional relationships within the camp and also show its economic relevance. The railway lines form the camp’s infrastructural arteries, and also connect it to the outside world. Even today, within the town of Feldbach, individual areas of the camp can be traced on the basis of the pattern of plots of land, with the location of the former isolation hospital being particularly visible. In addition, the most recent investigations show that the railway line on the Steinberg was a particularly carefully constructed trial military railway line and is of particular significance for the history of technology.


Markus Schmoll
THE REFUGEE CAMP IN GMÜND.
TRANSFORMATION AND AUTHENTICITY

The refugee camp in Gmünd, in what is today northern Lower Austria, close of the Czech border, was set up by the state at the end of 1914 in order to accommodate refugees whose homes had been destroyed or had become dangerous as a result of the war.
Gmünd mainly accommodated people from the Bukovina, and also, from 1916, from Istria. The camp was designed to take 30,000 refugees, a figure that was reached as early as mid-1915. Following the end of the war, after the refugees had returned to their homes, the camp was not demolished but became a new part of the town. The former refugee accommodation continued to be inhabited without interruption after the war and was only gradually replaced through the construction of new residential buildings and housing estates in the course of various urban development projects during the 20th century. Despite the huge building activity on the former camp site, numerous original parts of the former refugee camp have survived to the present in various reshapings and modifications.
The camp structure is still present as a significant element. The visitor can recognise and feel whether he is within the camp or already outside, reflected by the still partially surviving camp fence. It might be surprising that the substance of huts in the centre of this facility, which developed from a camp into a separate district of the town, has also survived, such as the former camp gate, the administrative hut or the huts of the camp guard. In the eastern part of the 1916 hut areas, what was known as the „villa colony“, although in part considerably reshaped, has also survived completely and hence authentically despite the transformations.