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Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege Heft 3/4, 2006

ÖZKD Heft 3/4 2006

Österreichische Zeitschrift
für Kunst und Denkmal-
pflege 2006, Heft 3/4

Buch Kurzinfo

Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege Heft 3/4, 2006

Erscheinungsjahr: 2006

Seiten: 164 Seiten

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 15,00

Zu bestellen bei: verlag.berger.at


Aus dem Inhalt:

Markus Thome
MATERIAL UND FARBIGKEIT IN DER ZISTERSIENSERARCHITEKTUR.
ZUR VERWENDUNG VON ROTMARMOR IN DEN KREUZGÄNGEN
DER ABTEIEN HEILIGENKREUZ UND LILIENFELD

Tibor Rostás
EINE KLEINE "DRAKOLOGIE". DIE ORNAMENTIK DER TIŠNOVER PORTA COELI UND UNGARN

Anton Schifter
BARTLMÄ FIRTALER UND DIE ST. MICHAELSKIRCHE AM RINDERMARKT IN LIENZ (BAUABRECHNUNGEN 1511/1512)

Walter Kalina
DER WIENER FESTUNGSBAU ZUR ZEIT DER KAISER FERDINAND III. UND LEOPOLD I. (1632-1672) 

Kurt Bleicher
DIE GRÄFLICH KUEFSTEINSCHE GRUFTKIRCHE IN RÖHRENBACH
UND EIN FRÜHNEUZEITLICHER HOSPITALTYPUS IM NÖRDLICHEN WALDVIERTEL. EINE BAUGESCHICHTLICHE UNTERSUCHUNG

Nina Ergin
TAMERLAN, TOMYRIS UND ANDERE ORIENTALISCHE TYRANNEN.
GEDANKEN ZUR IKONOGRAPHIE DES DECKENGEMÄLDEZYKLUS
IM SCHLOSS EGGENBERG, GRAZ

Rainald Franz
DAS "LAUB- UND BANDLWERK". EIN ORNAMENT ALS SIGNET
DES KUNSTTRANSFERS IM MITTELEUROPA DES FRÜHEN 18. JAHRHUNDERTS

Christine Oppitz / Werner Telesko
„ITE ET VOS IN VINEAM MEAM“. KUNSTPOLITIK UND SPIRITUALITÄT IM AUGUSTINER CHORHERRENSTIFT HERZOGENBURG UNTER PROPST FRIGDIAN I. KNECHT
(REG. 1740–1775)

Günther Buchinger
KLASSIZISTISCHE TENDENZEN IN DER WIENER MIETSHAUS-ARCHITEKTUR DES STRENGEN UND SPÄTEN HISTORISMUS

Alfred Joham
DIE VERMESSUNG DES EHEMALIGEN DOMINIKANERKLOSTERS
IN LEOBEN

Andreas Lehne
DIE METAMORPHOSEN DES HAUSES „ZUR GOLDENEN KUGEL“. NEBST EINIGEN GEDANKEN ZUR ENTWICKLUNG DER STADTBILDPFLEGE VOM WIEDERAUFBAU ZUM  „WIENER MEMORANDUM“

Manfred Wehdorn
DAS WIENER MEMORANDUM.
WELTERBE UND ZEITGENÖSSISCHE ARCHITEKTUR.
VOM UMGANG MIT DER HISTORISCHEN STADTLANDSCHAFT.

DAS WIENER MEMORANDUM.



ABSTRACTS
ENGLISCHE KURZFASSUNGEN DER AUFSÄTZE


MARKUS THOME
Material and colour schemes in Cistercian  architecture: the use of red marble in  the cloisters of Heiligenkreuz and Lilienfeld

One of the most convincing arguments that the Cistercian monasteries of Heiligenkreuz and Lilienfeld were commissioned by the sovereign is the presence of red marble in their cloisters. Building activity was until now often assumed to be linked with subsidies granted by Leopold VI (1195–1230) in Lilienfeld and by Friedrich the Bold (1230–1246) in Heiligenkreuz. More recent analyses of form and structure seem to indicate, however, that this was not the case. The first traces of red marble are found in the north wing of Heiligenkreuz, which was already begun arround 1220. Yet indications that the Babenbergs were providing these abbeys with support at this period are lacking. Current evidence seems to contradict an interpretation of the red marble as a sign of the sovereign exploitation. As can be seen in many other Cistercian monasteries, the use of colourful building material is not necessarily against the austere spirit of the order. It is important to note that these red marble columns are a part of the early 13th century’s complex system of colour values and express primarily an aesthetic principle, and do not necessarily bear any reference to patronage.


TIBOR ROSTÁS
A short “dracology”:  links between the ornamentation of 
the Porta Coeli in Tišnov and Hungary

The investigation of the situation in central Europe has contributed to a better understanding of the artistic contacts between the Austrian and the Bohemian court in the Middle Ages and has made these contacts an object of research. In his article on architectural sculpture (capitals with dragons and floral motifs), the author demonstrates that a significant number of Hungarian monuments also ties in with these contacts. Therefore, it can be said that the mediaeval sculpture at the court of Bela IV (1235–1270) was under a strong central European influence. The Porta Coeli in Tišnov, Czech Republic, is one such work.


ANTON SCHIFTER
Bartlmä Firtaler and St. Michael’s church at
the cattle market in Lienz


A privately owned manuscript contains descriptions of the construction work done on the church of St. Michael in Lienz (East Tyrol) in 1511 and 1512. The account of these procedures contains 25 pages and is divided into sections concerning the tasks of the architects, bricklayers, carpenters, transports, and other such duties and services indispensable for construction. Both the structuring of the invoice and the costs of the builders are typical of the construction practice of that time. This document gives us valuable insight into the way construction was carried out on the outskirts of the Holy Roman Empire in the late Middle Ages. Furthermore, the manuscript also contains the name of the architect responsible for building the church. A critical style analysis of the vaulted ceilings in the nave of St. Michael’s and in the quire of St. Andrew’s in Laas reveals these to be early works of Bartlmä Firtaler. The document supports this hypothesis and has also made it possible to date when the vault in the nave of St. Michael´s was completed.


WALTER KALINA
Michael’s was completed.  Fortifications in Vienna
from 1637–1672

Between the years of 1637 and 1672, the Emperor Ferdinand III and his son, Leopold I, were forced to invest enormous sums of money in the redevelopment and enlargement of the fortifications surrounding Vienna. This had become necessary both during the Thirty Year’s War and due to constant threat of the Ottoman Empire. After the first Turkish siege of Vienna in 1529, no new steps had been taken to rebuild the fortifications. For this purpose, Ferdinand appointed the best fortification architects of his time: the Italians Filiberto Luchese, master-builder at Ferdinand’s court, Giovanni Battista Pieroni, his son Francesco Pieroni, and Giovanni Ledenti. It was mainly Ledenti who was commissioned with the task of redeveloping the fortifications from 1645 on. Some of these architects even gained fabulous wealth during this period, and it is no wonder, considering that Ferdinand III was later presented with a bill of over 87,000 guilders for Vienna’s walls.


KURT BLEICHER
The burial church of the Counts of Kuefstein in Röhrenbach –
an early modern hospital in Lower Austria’s Waldviertel


The finding of a picture document dating back to approximately 1600 has made it evident that the core of the building is much older than originally thought. The same document shows that the building was a cruciform hospital with a steeple church at its centre, resembling the hospital of Döllersheim. There are some indications that alterations go back as far as the first quarter of the 17th century, possibly prompted by the establishment of a Protestant church. A family vault must have been constructed beneath an existing church in 1675 or shortly before. Subsequently, the burial church must have experienced its first baroque facelift sometime before its first dedication in 1708. By the time of the second dedication, the interior had already undergone another transformation with suspended domes supported by concave pilasters. The chronogram above the portal dating from 1737 tells us when the façade, attributed to Joseph Muggenast was completed. It also classifies the rich sculptural ornamentation by Giovanni Sanz as a part of the church’s development dating from 1735–37. The spire crowning the northern wing of the ambulatory dates from 1790, whereas a new burial chapel was constructed on the ground floor of the hospital’s north wing in 1894. One of the oldest known examples of cruciform hospitals is Santa Maria Nuova in Florence which dates back to 1337 and was often imitated in Southern Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. In the northern Waldviertel, it took on the particular form with a central steeple church and an ambulatory.

NINA ERGIN
Tamerlane, Tomyris, and other Oriental tyrants: Some thoughts on the iconography of the painting cycle in the palace Eggenberg, Graz


The ceiling of palace Eggenberg’s bel étage, with its cycle of over 600 paintings, was completed at the wish of Johann Siegfried Eggenberg largely during the period between 1665 and 1684. These oil paintings are the work of various artists who used master illustrations. Our iconographic study is limited to rooms 8, 10, and 12 which contain mostly scenes of punishment from Greek, Roman, and Oriental history. The source for these were Johann Ludwig Gottfried’s “Historic Chronicles” with their copperplate engravings by Matthäus Merian the Elder. The cycle draws partly from the martial and cultural conflict with the Ottoman Empire, a current motif in the 17th century. At the same time, it could have been inspired by the images of justice, so common in German and Dutch courthouses, which might also hint at the former use of these rooms. Another possible motivation for the choice of subject matter could be the theatre of the Jesuits whose plays also dealt with such themes and where being performed at schools in Graz at the same time these paintings were created.


RAINALD FRANZ
“Laub- und Bandlwerck” (“leaf and scroll-work”). An ornament as a sign of artistic transfer in Europe in the early 18th century


The paper discusses the development of the later “forgotten” style of ornament “Laub- und Bandlwerck” (“leaf and scroll-work”) under the aspect of artistic transfer: from its French origins within the Baroque revival of 16th century grotesque decorations a la “style Berain” in the late 17th century at the court of Louis XIV. to the German speaking countries in the early 18th century, where the ornament motive became an ornament style. Special notion is given to the role of the designers and editors/printers in Augsburg and Nuremberg in the 18th century, who served as key figures for the transfer of new ornamental motives. Wealthy and educated clients, like Prince Eugene of Savoy, commissioned buildings in the new style of interior and exterior decoration in the imperial city of Vienna and their residences, dedicated to fulfil their need for self-representation, thus paving the way for the successful establishing of the “Laub- und Bandlwerck” (“leaf and scroll-work”)-style as an imperial style, with the decorative arts using the surface ornament. The architect Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt and the team of interior decorators, gardeners, painters, who served at the courts of the Emperor, Prince Eugene and the Dukes of Schönborn, became the most important interpreters of the style of Austrian decoration, which proved to be an “aesthetic barrier” against the influence of the new French Rococo style in the second half of the 18th century.


CHRISTINE OPPITZ / WERNER TELESKO
“Ite et vos in vineam meam”: Art and spirituality in the Augustinian Monastery of Herzogenburg under
Provost Frigdian I Knecht (govt. 1740–1775)

This article focuses on the role of the most significant baroque provost of the Augustinian monastery in Herzogenburg (Lower Austria), Frigdian I Knecht (govt. 1740–1775). The resources of the abbey’s archives, never evaluated until now, paint us the picture of a cleric whose many functions and activities made him one of the most important figures in the Lower Austrian clergy of the 18th century. This article will demonstrate that the multi-talented provost played a decisive role in giving the abbey a completely new look. Moreover, new findings from the archives in Herzogenburg have helped to perfectly reconstruct the iconography of the festival hall frescoes, painted by Bartolomeo Altomonte in 1772–1773. This broad spectrum of intellectual and artistic activities gives us a vivid image of this great abbot, which perhaps even opens up new questions about the importance of the gospel, pastoral reforms, and the relationship to the diocese of Passau.


GÜNTHER BUCHINGER
Classicism in the architecture of Viennese tenant houses:
strict and late historicism


Several concrete cases will serve to show that the literal conflict between the architecture of Vienna’s strictly historistic tenements and classicism in the 1860’s and 70’s played a decisive role in the establishment of the neo-renaissance. The general rejection of classicism at the end of the 19th century meant a break in the classicistic tendencies of Viennese historicism and such forms were not taken up again until the early 20th century. This becomes even clearer when comparing both phases of historicism and the manner in which they deal with their classicistic models. The academic and analytical approach of strict historicism, which adopted classicistic elements faithfully from its model, is opposed to the architectural emphasis of neo-classicism which sought to expand on the model’s plasticity and monumental character, and to remodel them in new structural patterns and decorations.


ALFRED JOHAM

Surveying the former Dominican monastery in Leoben

This Dominican monastery dating back to the 13th century was suppressed in 1811. The complex – having been used for state purposes since 1859 – is now to become part of an interurban shopping centre. For that reason, the surveyor’s office of the city of Leoben has recently carried out its duties at this site. Both the officials’ results and the analysis of the historic plans have yielded interesting information about the historic structure (e.g. the old city wall is no longer preserved in the northern farmyard-wall, contrary to prior speculation) and the original appearance of the abbey church. Moreover, the orientation of the nave made it possible to discover the date of the church’s dedication (6 August, the feast of the order’s founder, St. Dominic).


ANDREAS LEHNE

The transformations of the house “zur goldenen Kugel” and a
few thoughts on the developments in preserving the cityscape:
from rebuilding after WWII to the “Viennese memorandum”

The façade-ornamentation of this eclecticistic tenement house, built in 1883, was removed in 1933. After having been badly damaged in the war, it was rebuilt on a smaller scale for aesthetic reasons in 1949. It received an additional floor in the 1980’s, and was finally even given a new façade with historistic elements. In an essay from 1946, a prominent urban expert drew attention to the house “Zur goldenen Kugel” as a striking demonstration of the right and wrong way to deal with historic buildings. Today this house is especially qualified for illustrating the changes that have come over the past 60 years. The stark contrasts between the rigid approach after the war, when house owners were asked to make material sacrifices “for beauty’s sake”, and today’s policy of “anything goes” is indeed astonishing. We might even say the latter tries to justify its giving in to economic interests by praising the aesthetics of the contrast between old and new. This is the approach that the city of Vienna is trying to incorporate internationally through the UNESCO document, the “Viennese memorandum”.


MANFRED WEHDORN

The “Vienna Memorandum”: world cultural heritage and contemporary architecture, some thoughts on dealing
with an historic cityscape


Prompted by the heated debate on topics such as a central train station in Vienna (Wien-Mitte), roofscapes, and the loss of main visual axes, a UNESCO conference on the topic “world heritage and contemporary architecture” was organised in Vienna in May 2005. The conference was attended by over 600 city planners and historic preservationists from 55 countries. The result was the so-called “Vienna Memorandum” which defines guidelines on the coexistence of historic and modern architecture. Being a “whole” city – with both living and historical aspects – requires responsible planning.
A responsible policy of city planning means, on the one hand, respecting heritage conservation as one of its key points; on the other hand, it includes interdisciplinary discussion and mutual understanding between city planners, architects, historic preservationists, sociologists, economists, investors, politicians, etc. The Memorandum requires the survey and analysis of an historic landscape as well as investigating the long-term effects of the steps to be taken. Pseudo-historical design is rejected; one historical view should not supplant others. “Good” architecture respects the given scales.