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Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege, Heft 2/3 2007

ÖZKD 2007, Heft 2/3

Österreichische Zeitschrift
für Kunst und Denkmal-
pflege 2007, Heft 2/3

Buch Kurzinfo

Titel: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege, Heft 2/3 2007

Erscheinungsjahr: 2007

Seiten: ca. 243 Seiten

ISBN: AUT 0029-9626

Preis: € 15,–-

Zu bestellen bei verlag.berger.at

Aus dem Inhalt:

Bernd Euler-Rolle

Patrick Schicht

Erwin Reidinger/Peter Csendes/Helmut Flachenecker

Elisabeth Oberhaidacher-Herzig

Günther Buchinger

Christina Wolf

Manfred Koller

Franz Wagner

Rainer Kahsnitz

Friedrich Kobler

Manfred Koller

Ingo Sandner

Manfred Koller

Renate Holzschuh-Hofer

Metoda Kemperl

Silvia Freimann

Martina Griesser-Stermscheg

Bernhard Hebert/Ingo Mirsch


Bernd Euler-Rolle
‘Modern historic preservation’ and ‘modern architecture’:
Common roots, separate ways?

The preservation of historic monuments and modern architecture must have had much more in common in the beginning than they do nowadays, both having been opposed to the historistic restoration architecture of the 19th century. Alois Riegl, one of the founders of ‘modern historic preservation’, defined an essential part of a monument’s value as being the way in which it is perceived over the generations, in marked contrast to normative aesthetics. This way of thinking made it possible for historic preservation and modern art to coexist peacefully. According to Riegl’s theory of ‘relative modern art-value’, additions to historic monuments should not merely imitate earlier styles; rather, they ought to take on the expression of their own time.
The break between historic preservation and modern architecture did not really take place until the 1920s, when modern architecture and the International Style decided to radically break with the past. At the same time, the radical nature of the Heimatschutzbewegung in Austria led to a certain degree of contempt for modern architecture with the result that both positions began to drift apart more and more. A sort of ‘moderate modern architecture’ came about after World War II as a result of the conflicting desires to start from scratch, on the one hand, and to rebuild on the other. The functionalist modern architecture of the 1960s finally led to an incoherent coexistence between existing conservative elements and contemporary additions and its documentation in the Venice Charter of 1964. Carlo Scarpa’s principle of welding and layering as well as the later use of steel and glass as the ostentatious medium of modern architecture served to widen the gap. Modern architecture’s need to send signals became the expression of its belief in progress which characterised monuments as more or less unimportant background music. Designing something new for the sake of its newness became a matter of principle which was even adopted by historic preservation.
The so-called reflexive modern architecture of the late 20th century has luckily begun rethinking the relationship between old and new and aims at a coherent coexistence between monuments and what is added on to them. Nonetheless, modern architecture often has the tendency to want to restyle historic monuments and question their identity. That is why the various tasks and approaches of both modern architecture and historic preservation must be kept in mind. It is the job of architects to solve specific constructional problems concerning monuments and not to refashion them as they please. The right solution can only be found if historic preservation distinguishes between the various levels of importance of a monument and architecture respects these distinctions without prejudice. After all, ‘modern’ means living in our time and not being dominant.

Patrick Schicht
The medieval fortress Hohensalzburg
Over the past several years, comprehensive research has been carried out on Salzburg’s most significant fortress and has yielded some very interesting information, particularly about the history of the Hohensalzburg during the High Middle Ages.
One of the most important discoveries was made when painted arcade windows from the mid 12th century were exposed, along with the Romanesque chapel including several examples of fresco painting and stucco work. This discovery has made it possible to carry out an historic evaluation of the fortress – as it stood in the Middle Ages – for the very first time. In 1500, most of the chapel had been torn down with the exception of the base level where some frescoes were found still more or less intact. Other frescoes and bits of stucco work were also used to fill up the room and fortunately could be salvaged. The valuable furnishings dating back to the reign of Archbishop Konrad I (1106 – 1146) can be compared with other regional fresco motifs and is one of the few works of early monumental painting in Salzburg that has been dated.

Erwin Reidinger
The Schottenkirche in Vienna
This essay is an example1 of how the founding of certain church buildings can be dated. This dating process is based on the fact that many medieval churches were positioned in the direction of the rising sun, meaning that the day on which they were founded is often ‘built in’ to the church’s axis and can, at least theoretically, be calculated astronomically. In these churches, the positioning to the East can be determined by a ‘bend’ in the axis of the structure which results from a separate orientation of the nave and the choir. This orientation was consciously carried out on two particular days. The feast day on which the choir (or presbytery) was positioned was always ‘holier’ than the one on which the nave was.
Our investigations in the Schottenkirche turned out to be rather difficult as very little of the original Romanesque church (ca. 1160) is left. Nevertheless, thanks to exact measurements and analyses of the structure, it was possible to find the axis of both the choir and the nave. The astronomical evaluation yielded two dates, namely 17 March (nave: Feast of St. Patrick) and 20 March (choir: Palm Sunday) of the years 1155 and 1160.
The historic analysis of these results suggests that the Schottenkirche in Vienna was founded in the year 1155. The founder was Heinrich II Jasomirgott, who moved his residence from Regensburg to Vienna around this time and invited Scots-Irish monks to come to his court in Vienna. Therefore, the choice of these two becomes suddenly very reasonable: St. Patrick refers the monks’ origin (St. Patrick is the herald of the faith in Ireland) and Palm Sunday to the Duke’s entry into Vienna (as Jesus entered Jerusalem).

Elisabeth Oberhaidacher-Herzig
The furnishings of the palace chapel of Albrecht V (II)
in the Hofburg (Vienna)

The palace chapel in Vienna’s Hofburg was altered and enlarged under duke Albrecht V (II), most probably after his marriage to the only daughter of Emperor Sigismund in 1421. The only artistic appointments from this period which have survived are the capstones in the vaulted ceiling and a Marian statue. Archives give witness to the stained glass windows and their masters, while remnants of some of the frescoes were discovered in the course of renovation work in 1977. Contemporary images from the Duke’s prayer books reveal that the chapel was once furnished with an altar piece and, like most of the prestigious rooms of that time, with numerous precious fabrics.

Günther Buchinger
The Austrian origin of six stained glass windows
in the Historisches Museum in Basel

In 1892, the Historisches Museum in Basel acquired six stained glass windows which were later thought to be the work of a workshop in Salzburg dating back to 1435. This theory, proposed by Franz Kieslinger in 1930, implied furthermore that the windows were originally located in the church St. Leonhard ob Tamsweg and has since been disproved. In 1967, Eva Frodl-Kraft suggested that the windows were originally to be found in the church St. Leonhard ob Murau in Styria. This theory, however, was also rejected after a recent survey for the Austrian Corpus Vitrearum had shown that the measurements of the church do not correspond to the windows in question. This article is concerned with providing yet another answer to the much asked question on the origin of these stained glass windows: in our opinion the parish church St. Leonhard in Carinthia’s Lavanttal region. There is a broad range of arguments supporting this hypothesis. For one thing, this church includes a number of windows from the “First Judenburg Workshop” which produced the dutchmen used to repair the windows in Basel. Secondly, archives recall that certain windows from the Lavanttal church where repaired with the fragments of other windows in 1857 and that one of them was sold to an unknown collector some time before 1863. Thirdly, the church contains an empty quadripartite window whose dimensions correspond to the stained glass windows in Basel. Lastly, it has been sufficiently proven that the prosperous family Krug von Perchau from the Lavanttal region was the donor of the stained glass windows. The question that remains unanswered is why the family would have been interested in depicting contemporary rulers in such an ostentatious manner in stained glass. Further analyses are to be published in the volume of the Corpus regarding Carinthia.

Christina Wolf
Hidden stained glass treasures in the Museum
of Applied Art in Vienna

This article is dedicated to Professor Eva Frodl-Kraft on the occasion of her 90th birthday. In the 1950s and early 60s, she was the first to carry out critical analyses of the medieval stained glass windows in Vienna’s Museum of Applied Art. The results of her work were published in the first volume of the Austrian magazine Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi. More recent research is continuing to help make this topic more accessible and deepen our knowledge of it.
One of the recent fruits born by modern research includes a stained glass window depicting the three sleeping disciples in Gethsemane which dates back to the 15th century. This window could be traced back to the church of Our Lady in Bischofshofen, meaning yet another important work of 15th century stained glass in the region of Salzburg has been discovered. Another example, a 16th century stained glass window depicting the Nativity, – not made public until now – is also presented in this essay. The Museum of Applied Art acquired this work from the Laxenburg Palace in 1923 and has kept it locked away until now. The results of the style analysis show that this piece is the product of a workshop in Augsburg, made for the parish church of Steyr in Upper Austria. Today, only one single stained glass window remains in this church, depicting the death and coronation of the Virgin.

Manfred Koller
The Exhibition Series “Important works of Art”1992-2006 – Cooperation for Austrian Art and History
Bundesdenkmalamt and Österreichische Galerie Belvedere cooperated after 1946 at the restoration and reconstruction of the site of the Belvedere. Until 1955 the federal studios for restoration were also installed there. It was the 1970ies and 1980ies that cooperation projects concerned with various restorations and exhibitions led to a series of annual presentations of important works of art coming from all regions of Austria. Twenty-one exhibitions were shown over fourteen years featuring: medieval stained glass paintings, transferred wall paintings, polychrome stone sculptures, textiles and painted wooden sculptures and altarpieces from the late gothic period. These were combined with workshops. Professionals from all over Europe could discuss results, methods and actual positions of research. The results of research and examinations were presented on posters and documented in catalogues.

Franz Wagner
Nuremberg and Salzburg around 1500:
Archives speak about their relations

There is a multitude of contemporary accounts describing Nuremberg as the most important centre of trade and industry in the German-speaking world of the late 15th century. With so many trade routes leading to all parts of Europe, it is particularly interesting to note that the merchants from Nuremberg did not send their goods to and from Venice over the Brenner Pass which was subject to a number of strict regulations. Rather, they preferred the transport by loaded horse or donkey through the province of Salzburg and over the Tauern Mountains. There is enough testimony in various archives to prove that the commercial and personal connections between the two cities were substantial, even though Salzburg was a much smaller city by comparison. That fact did not stop the Salzburg merchants from finding sales markets all over the continent, whether in Prague, Strasbourg, or Nuremberg. As an important factor in maintaining good connections, works of art were also not neglected. That explains why in the city of Salzburg alone such a large number of altar pieces were commissioned in connection with central European trade routes in the early 16th century.

Rainer Kahsnitz
Veit Stoss and the altar in Mauer
How much influence did Veit Stoss have on sculpture in Austria? That is a central question that was even the topic of a symposium organised by the Austrian Office for the Preservation of Historic Monuments in 2005. Apart from a few apprentice works such as the crucifixion in Hallein (Salinenkapelle) and the small altar in Salzburg (Nonnberg), there is also the more serious work of the master of Mauer. In this article, the author refers to several detailed comparisons in order to prove that Veit Stoss was a decisive influence on the craftsmanship of the sculptor from Mauer, particularly in the depiction of garments. The master from Mauer was most probably an apprentice of Veit Stoss, though certainly influenced by contemporary Viennese art at the time he created the altar in Mauer during second half of the 16th century. There are indications that the Austrian sculptor and Veit Stoss had a relationship similar to that which the master from Nuremberg and Niclas Gerhaerts had had in Strasbourg two generations before.

Friedrich Kobler
Wolf Huber’s sculptor, part 2
The painter Wolf Huber from Passau was commissioned to create an altar piece for the parish church in Feldkirch (Vorarlberg) including sculptures in 1515. The man charged with creating the sculptures was also an artisan who practiced his trade mainly in Passau. He also created several relieves in Irrsdorf (diocese of Passau) which are now kept in museums in Salzburg and Vienna. His name is unknown which is why he is commonly referred to as the ‘master of Feldkirch’ or the ‘master of Irrsdorf’. Fragments of his relieves dating from the period 1525/30 have come down to us, preserved on the reverse side of paintings by Wolf Huber. Related works dating from 1519 also exist in Passau and, with similar soldier figures, in Prague (the latter are signed with the monogram IP).
A concealed part of the altar piece in Feldkirch reveals the letters WH (Wolf Huber) with a ligature between. This ligature is often interpreted as the signature of the stonecutter and sculptor Jörg Huber from Passau who practiced his trade in Cracow from 1492 to 1503. Yet this is a rather misguided interpretation, especially when considering that one of the letters is often misread (R, not B). Wolf Huber was befriended with a certain Sixt Pirkmeier in Passau in the 1530s; it is quite possible that he was the master of the sculptures in Feldkirch and Irrsdorf.

Manfred Koller
Panel Paintings from the St. Anne Altarpiece by Wolf Huber: Restoration Policy and Museum Controversy 1953–1967
The dated (1521) and signed painted wings of the altarpiece commissioned to Huber in 1516 for the St. Nikolaus-parish church Feldkirch, Vorarlberg, were separated from the altar during the 19th century. In 1953 the four double side painted panels were found by the conservator Erwin Heinzle in a monastery near Bregenz, which wanted to sell them. As the price rose to an amount too high for Austrian museums, they were bought by the Swiss collector Emil Bührle at Zürich. Because he did not get an export license they had to stay in Austria. From 1957–1966 the new owner lent the panels to the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna where a subtle cleaning was made. After 1960 the province of Vorarlberg pursued their return to the region. Finally they were successful. In 2005 altarpiece and panel paintings could be united again in the cathedral church of Feldkirch.

Ingo Sandner
Tracings on Wolf Huber’s altar of St. Anne in Feldkirch
The main objective of this study was to help visualise the first steps of a painting, the preliminary tracings. The initial rough draft was followed by the actual tracing with a somewhat darker medium. The tools used for this purpose were a quill feather (for the group figures and the landscape on the plate depicting the mourning scene) and a large-sized pointed brush for the central plate and the structures depicted in the various squares. It cannot be said for sure whether tracing was employed for the predella. The surface is divided by a series of short, jagged strokes. The rather loose correlation between the tracings and the actual painting, compared with Wolf Huber’s own hand drawings on paper, suggest that he did the major part of the work himself. The only deviations from this procedure are to be found on the plate depicting Joachim and the angle, indicating that an assistant may have helped him.

Manfred Koller
The Relations between Drawings and Under drawings
in Paintings by Wolf Huber

Relations between autograph drawings by Wolf Huber and under drawings in black pencil on his paintings are analyzed by Huber’s Feldkirch-altarpiece, painted around 1520/21, and two panels showing ‘Christ takes Leave from his Mother’ in Vienna (dated 1519) and London. Parts of the under drawings are visible to the naked eye and were additionally proofed by infrared-reflectography. They are more homogeneous than the drawings on paper and already show much of the compositions, with some variations to the superposing paint layers. Stylistically these under drawings are very close to his signed paper-drawings and must therefore be by the painter himself.

Renate Holzschuh-Hofer
Hofburg in Vienna during the 16th century:
Fortress residence of Ferdinand I.

As a ruler of Central Europe and as the stylized shield of the Holy Roman Empire, Ferdinand I adapted and enlarged Hofburg to serve as a centralised, early modern residence and therewith formed its characteristic outline, parts of which survive to the present day. The political and historical conditions present at the time when Hofburg was developed from a middle aged castle into an early modern residence are topic of this article together with a general history of the buildings evolution. The fall of the Kingdom of Hungary in August 1526 created a dramatic shift in the political situation: the buffer zone between the empires Habsburg and Ottoman suddenly disappeared - the European borders front door was now at the Casa Austria. Swiftly, two global players - Emperor Karl V. and Sultan Süleyman, found themselves facing each other on a planetary scale game board, both sharing ambitions to establish a world empire by means of power ideology, propaganda and war. Ferdinand found his Central European territories squeezed between the politics and ideology of the two, but, despite the military superiority of this enemy from the east, he would have had little choice but to robustly oppose the Osman expansion as it was not only Ferdinand’s interests that were under threat, but those of the Holy Roman Empire and, potentially, the future of Christianity. Where else, under these circumstances, could have Ferdinand focused his thoughts other than on Vienna? Vienna, geographical located between the Alps and the Carpathians, was seen from the southeast as the gate of Casa Austria, beyond which the access to central Europe via the Danube highway lay due to its crucially important strategic location. It was also the most easterly outpost of western ideology and territory, and in the eyes of the Turks, Vienna was the Golden Apple, the key to the conquest of Central Europe, perhaps equivalent to Constantinople in the fall of the Byzantium. Ferdinand seen in terms of Erasmus von Rotterdam as the good and reliable ruler, was almost obliged to establish his main residence in Vienna, as a symbol of his permanency and commitment to the town and its people: the “Royal Emblem” on the front line after the fall of Hungary in 1526. Thus, the establishment of the rain residence in Vienna can be viewed as the ideological part of a whole military defence strategy of placing the King, subsequently Emperor, as symbol of his permanent presence on the front line. Under Ferdinand, Hofburg was developed into an early modern fortress residence whose shape, type and embedded iconology should, in retrospect, be examined under these fundamentally important historical aspects.

Methoda Kemperl
The church of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour in Puscava, the first example of a building with three apses in Styria
The church of Our Lady in Puscava was commissioned by the abbot of St. Paul’s, Filip Röttenhausler, and erected between 1668 and 1772. The church has a total of three apses and was most likely inspired by the cathedral in Salzburg. In contrast to the lavish interior, the exterior of the building is rather austere and without a clearly recognisable structure. It is also interesting to note that the exterior diverges greatly from the engraving to be found in the Topographiae Ducatus Styriae made by Andreas Trost in 1677. This discrepancy can be best explained by the probable fact that the print had been made according to plans that were later altered by the architect or commissioner and not according to the appearance of the church at the time. The depiction in the Topographiae was to serve as a sort of advertisement for the pilgrimage church and the decision on how the building was depicted belonged to the landlord as the commissioner.
The date of the construction makes the church of Our Lady in Puscava the oldest building with three apses in Styria which later served as a model for numerous other sacred buildings in the region (by Remigius Horner and Jakob Schmerleib).

Silvia Freimann
The decorative and social components of Eduard Veith’s
paintings in Vienna’s Volkstheater

The painter Eduard Veith (* in 1858 in Nový Jicin, + in 1925 in Vienna) was commissioned by the architects Helmer and Fellner to design the main curtain and the ceiling of the auditorium in Vienna’s Volkstheater in 1887. The first of the two ceiling frescoes pays homage to the most popular poets of the German-speaking world. The second fresco depicts the apotheosis of the city of Vienna. Veith’s goal is not to create spatial illusions but rather to break up the wall surface by providing it with atmospheric elements. The subject of the main curtain is “Mayday under the reign of Leopold the Glorious”.
To put it briefly: there is much more to Veith’s works in the Volkstheater than its mere decorative appeal. They offer theatre-goers a playful identification with the past, typical of the nobility and educated bourgeoisie of the late 19th century, in the tradition of Hans Makart, Gustav and Ernst Klimt, and Franz Matsch.

Martina Griesser-Stermscheg
An electric church in Floridsdorf
From 2002 to 2004, the interior of the monumental church of St. Leopold in the working class district of Floridsdorf (built 1905 – 1914) was thoroughly renovated. In this case, the job was given to the Institute for Conservation and Renovation of the University of Applied Arts in Vienna. One of the most impressive aspects of this late Secessionist building is its many lighting fixtures. Among these there were six gas-burning wall lamps, the large chandelier in the choir, five so-called ‘angle lamps’ in the nave, and two devotional lamps which, however, had already been equipped with electrical lighting. The use of metal alloys in various colours and the diverse shapes of the lighting fixtures are particularly worthy of mention. They serve not only a practical function but also an iconographic one: angles carry lamps and lighting is built into the halos of images with Mary and the Sacred Heart. Regaining the historic appearance of the various fixtures was the least of our difficulties. The true challenge was to regain the original lighting concept which integrated and ‘mixed’ several types of light. It goes without saying that the light generated by modern bulbs is unfortunately unable to produce the same colours and effects which were once given by the gas-burning lamps.

Bernhard Hebert /Ingo Mirsch
New archaeological museums in Styria
Over the last few years, the province of Styria has experienced an increase in small archaeological museums on the regional level. These museums are commonly supported by associations or communities that are aware of their archaeological heritage and aim at presenting this heritage on site, often employing the principles of modern museum design and educational methods on a relatively grand scale. Some notable examples include the presentation of the Roman village ruins in Kalsdorf near Graz; the expansion of the archaeological exhibit in the Tabormuseum in Feldbach, including findings from a further Roman village and tumulus fields; and the opening of an archaeological museum in Wildon containing the most significant findings from various excavation sites in the area. This welcome phenomenon of regionalisation presents institutions such as state museums, universities, and the Federal Office for the Preservation of Historical Monuments with the challenge of managing and superintending findings which are normally only kept in central museums or warehouses.